Spectrum of COPD Assignment

Spectrum of COPD Assignment

-Describe the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic factors/processess that might have altered anticipated response to drugs for a 55 years old African American male patient diagnose with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) 5years ago. Patient has a history of type diabetes and hypertension. -Consider factors as genetics(pharmacogenetics), gender, age, ethnicity, behavior and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to the disease(copd) -Explain details of the personalized plan of care developed based on influencing factors and history. Be specific with examples.Spectrum of COPD Assignment

Pharmacokinetics depend on both the drug and the patient factors. For instance, the factors that could have altered the anticipated response in the drugs for a 55 years old African American male patient diagnose with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 5years ago with history DM could be the genetic makeup, age, sex or renal functioning (Matera et al., 2018). The chemical factors that could have affected the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion include the molecular weight of the drug, dissociation degree, fat-solubility and water solubility. On the other hand, the possible pharmacodynamic factors altering the response could be physiologic changes characterized by genetic mutations, underlying diseases, aging and other drugs.Spectrum of COPD Assignment


Aging is associated with multiple physiologic changes in all organ systems which could result in the development of diseases. In fact, the risk of chronic diseases increases with age. This is often due to the increase in blood pressure, decreased cardiac output and development of arteriosclerosis. Impaired exchange of gas in the lungs, slow expiratory flow rates and reduced vital capacity in the lungs is also a relevant factor in aging pathophysiology (Voelkel, Mizuno & Cool, 2017). The first COPD symptoms usually appear at 40 years and in this case, the client is 55 years. The change in the structure and function of the lung associated with his age increases his pathogenetic susceptibility to COPD.

A personalized plan of care for the client will focus on symptom management, improvement of quality of life, reduction of complications and exacerbation risks and slowing of progression. This will entail control of breathing, clearing of the airways, exercise, healthy diet, smoking and air polluted areas avoidance as well as follow-up care for monitoring the progress. The patient will also be prescribed 2.5 mg three times a day of Albuterol short-acting bronchodilators inhaler to relax the muscles around the airways to facilitate easy breathing, relieve shortness of breath and coughing (Rogliani et al., 2017).


Voelkel, N. F., Mizuno, S., & Cool, C. D. (2017). The Spectrum of Pulmonary Disease in COPD. In COPD (pp. 195-207). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Matera, M. G., Rinaldi, B., Page, C., Rogliani, P., & Cazzola, M. (2018). Pharmacokinetic considerations concerning the use of bronchodilators in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology14(10), 1101-1111.

Rogliani, P., Ora, J., Puxeddu, E., Matera, M. G., & Cazzola, M. (2017). Adherence to COPD treatment: myth and reality. Respiratory medicine129, 117-123. Spectrum of COPD Assignment