Reproductive Health and Hematology.
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Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study
Understanding women’s and men’s health is critical for the clinician in order that they can make the correct diagnosis when any patient presents with specific signs and symptoms. This is because the signs and symptoms may not directly point at infection of the reproductive organs at the time, but may actually be a consequence of previous infection. Also, the immune system and hematologic parameters may provide an indication as to what exactly may have been the precipitating factor in terms of the reproductive health of the patient. This paper is about a case study of a 14 year-old female adolescent recovering from infectious mononucleosis (mono) and encompasses the points stated above. Reproductive Health and Hematology.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) as Factors Affecting Fertility
Sexually transmitted infections or STIs affect the reproductive tract and may leave long-lasting scars and footprints. Some of these infections are able to ascend upwards along the reproductive tract and cause inflammation and scarring in the Fallopian tubes. This is tubal factor infertility and results from STIs that are not treated promptly. Examples of STIs responsible for this kind of tubal factor infertility are gonorrhoea and chlamydia, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis respectively. Infertility has been defined as the inability on the part of the female to conceive naturally within at least one year of consistent unprotected sexual intercourse (Tsevat et al., 2017). Reproductive Health and Hematology.
Reason for Rise in Inflammatory Markers in STIs and/ or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
The reason for the rise in inflammatory markers in STIs/ PID can be stated as being a normal inflammatory response. This is especially true for the nonspecific inflammatory markers erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR and the C-reactive protein or CRP. However, the other inflammatory marker that studies have shown to be predictive and diagnostic of PID is the CA-125 protein. Normally, the CA-125 marker is elevated in ovarian cancer, but it has been demonstrated that in the absence of ovarian cancer this marker is diagnostic of PID. And as mentioned earlier, the most notorious STIs that elicit an elevation in ESR, CRP, and CA-125 are chlamydia and gonorrhea (Park et al., 2017). Reproductive Health and Hematology.
The Reason for Prostatitis and Infection Happening with Systemic Reaction
Literature that is available shows that the occurrence of infection in prostatitis results from the leakage of bacteria from the urinary tract into the prostatic parenchyma. The bacteria then infect the prostatic cells resulting in inflammation and its accompanying cardinal signs of pain, redness, heat, swelling, and loss of function. Left untreated, the symptoms generalize and become systemic because of tissue invasion away from the primary site of infection (MFMER, 2020; Hammer & McPhee, 2018). Reproductive Health and Hematology.
Why a Patient Needs a Splenectomy After Diagnosis with Immune Thrombocytopenia or ITP
Thrombocytopenia or a low platelet count in ITP is caused by autoantibody production in the spleen and platelet clearance from the same organ. There are many medical therapies (like rituximab) for the condition to help reduce the tendency to bleed from thrombocytopenia (as may be the case with the 14 year-old teenager in the case study). However, in patients who cannot tolerate the medications or in whom the medications are not effective, splenectomy is the next option. It removes the autoantibody source as well as the sequestration center for platelets (Chaturvedi et al., 2018). Reproductive Health and Hematology.
Different Kinds of Anemia
Anemia is the deficiency of the protein hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is carried in erythrocytes. Types of anemia include iron-deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, haemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, and vitamin deficiency anemia (Hammer & McPhee, 2018). Reproductive Health and Hematology.
Both men and women are affected by reproductive health problems. These may be tied to other systemic manifestations which may provide a clue as to the diagnosis. Reproductive Health and Hematology.