Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.



This assignment is 1 part of 4,  what I need from you is a 2000 word literature review

Focusing on Nursing in Australia

Scope of Practice         this is the different levels of nursing but needs to focus mainly on the registered nurse and the enrolled nurse and on the different scopes that these have and how with all the demands on enrolled nurses and how confusing it is, (not the practising registered nurse) .Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.



Perception , this needs to be on precepting as a new graduate registered nurse, so on precepting endorsed enrolled nurse, assistant in nursing, and student nurses It needs to include a definition of the both

Needs to explore the issues in the real world.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Assignment 2: Professional issues in nursing

Part B

NUR365 Professional Nursing 2 Assignment 2 Part B: Information and guidelines 2 Remember: You are returning to your drafts from the Reflective Journal Entries 1 and 2 you developed in Assignment 2 Part A. You are still able to incorporate any feedback and revise your drafts before final submission of Assignment 2.

There are 4 (four) tasks to Assignment 2 Part B.

Task 1: Literature review

Prepare a literature review that critically summarises and analyses the current literature related to

The scope of nursing practice in Australia

Precepting nurses and student nurses in clinical settings


To prepare for this task:

Locate, read and note the information and guidelines provided below.


Locate, read and note the information below developing a literature review provided below.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Plan additional time over the weeks leading up to the due date for Assignment2 Part B to

osearch the library databases for current and relevant literature

oread and critically evaluate the material you locate

omake notes and plan your literature review

owrite your literature review

oreview and edit your work before submission


Writing a literature review takes time; don’t leave it till just before the due date. You will need to critique, summarise and synthesize information from a number of articles.

Guidelines for developing your literature review

What is a literature review? A literature review is a summary of the relevant and reputable literature published by recognised scholars and researchers related to a specific topic.


A literature review is not a paragraph, or series of paragraphs, separately describing or summarising each article.


What is the purpose of a literature review? A literature review tells the reader what is known about the topic and what the strengths and weaknesses of the reported literature are.


A literature review demonstrates your ability to use appropriate databases to locate current, relevant and appropriate articles.


It also demonstrates your ability to evaluate, analyse and to critically appraise the published literature in an objective and constructive way.


A literature review should:

oBe organized and directly related to the topic you are asked to discuss

oSynthesize the findings of the published material into a summary of what is know and what is not known about the topic

oIdentify areas of disagreement or debate in the literature

oFormulate questions that require further investigation or study


The Health Online Tutorial (on the CDU Library Libguide for Nursing page or via the direct link on NUR365 main menu) or the CDU Health Librarian can help you develop skills in searching, locating and evaluating resources for Assignment 2 Part B.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Resources for Assignment 2 Part B must be from quality nursing journals and be dated no earlier than 2003.


There must be at least 5 journal articles that meet the criteria for inclusion (see dot point above) for each topic. While there in no limit to the amount of articles you can include, remember you are not writing a research report or thesis and there is a word limit you have to keep within. Inclusion and extensive critique of fewer, better quality articles is better than superficial analysis of more articles that are of variable or lesser quality.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Documents from professional nursing websites may be included if they are current, appropriate and relevant. Note: These cannot substitute for the required number of journal articles identified in the previous point, they are considered additional resources.


The nature of this assignment does not lend itself to using textbooks as resources. However, your set text will be a good starting point and may be included as an additional resource but it can not substitute for the required number of journal articles identified above.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


You will need to critically consider whether or not the information in your sources is relevant and appropriate to Australian nursing practice. There are differences in role and scope of nursing practice as well as in the structure and organization of health and nursing services and regulatory requirements around the world.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Because material available on the internet can be of variable quality and reliability, it is strongly recommended that internet sources such as sites offering free nursing resources or blog sites be kept to a minimum or preferably not used at all. This does not include journal articles located electronically via CDU Library databases. Sources from internet sites cannot substitute for the required number of journal articles identified above, they are considered additional resources.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.



The nature of this assignment does not lend itself to using textbooks as resources. However, your set text will be a good starting point and may be included as an additional resource but it can not substitute for the required number of journal articles identified above.


You will need to critically consider whether or not the information in your sources is relevant and appropriate to Australian nursing practice. There are differences in role and scope of nursing practice as well as in the structure and organization of health and nursing services and regulatory requirements around the world.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Because material available on the internet can be of variable quality and reliability, it is strongly recommended that internet sources such as sites offering free nursing resources or blog sites be kept to a minimum or preferably not used at all. This does not include journal articles located electronically via CDU Library databases. Sources from internet sites cannot substitute for the required number of journal articles identified above, they are considered additional resources.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.



It is not appropriate to use preview copies of books available on sites such as Google Books or other online book retailers. You may, however, use relevant electronic books available on the CDU Library site, but please note the information about using textbooks above.

Once you have located relevant and appropriate resources:

You will need to evaluate each article and ask questions like these about each one to decide if it is an appropriate article to include in your literature review, the same as you would with any published material:

oIs the problem or issue clearly defined?

oIs it a report of a research project or not?

oWhat methodology has the researcher used? Is it appropriate for the problem or issue?

oHas the author evaluated the literature in a way that is objective and unbiased?

oIs the analysis of the material accurate and relevant to the problem or issue?

oAre the conclusions based on the data and analysis?

oIs the article written in an objective style or is it in emotional language and biased to one particular view?Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


oIn what way does the article contribute to the understanding of the problem and in what way is it useful for practice?

oWhat are the strengths and limitations of the study or the findings?


Once you have done this, select the ones you consider are appropriate for inclusion in your literature review. Ensure they meet the requirements for resources identified above.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Read the selected articles you have selected for inclusion again (you may need to do this several times) and make brief notes about the articles you have chosen to include.

From your notes, develop a plan for your literature review identifying points you want to include (and note which article/s they are in at the time!). In some places, you will have 2 or more references for the one point.

There is no one correct way to structure you literature review. It can be organized by date or historical/developmental context or by topic or theme.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Begin to write your literature review. Take care when you interpret what you have read that it is in your own words. It is recommended that you keep direct quotes to a minimum.

Presentation guidelines for Assignment 2 Part B

in either Arial, New Times Roman or Calibri font size 11 or 12.

double-spaced. This facilitates ease of marking and provides room to give you written feedback directly onto your assignment.

In Australian English. Change the language on your computer and word processor to English Australian to ensure correct spelling.


Nursing is a  humble and important profession in today’s world and health care sector needs nursing to  serve  the  society  in  a  proper  manner.  Nursing  sector  in  Australia  maintains  good quality  and  standards  in  terms  of  offering  services  to  the  patients and improving  the health  care sector   in Australia.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Nursing   is  a  noble  profession  because  nurses  play  a  pivotal  role  in taking  care  of  the patient  and  helping  the  patient   to    overcome  the  ailments   they  are  suffering  with (Jones, J. & Cheek, J. 2003).  Nurses   prevent  the  spread   of   infection  in  patients  and  help   the patients  to manage  their  life  in  tough  times ,  in  a  competent  manner ( Blair,P. 2003).

The  general  principles  followed   during  nursing  are

  1. The nurses  should  understand   in   what   situation   the   patient  is   and  what  is  the  level  of   competence  required   by  the   nurse  to  administer  the  patient  and  what  is   the  procedure  required  to   improve  the  health  of  the  patient.
  2.  Maintaining  professionalism  in  the working  place  and  doing  the   duties  in  a  lawful  and proper  manner  by maintaining  the   work  place   ethics ( Carrigan, C. 2007) .
  3. There  should  be   proper  consultation  and  planning  of  the treatment  for the  patients  by  cooperating  with  the  doctors  and higher  management  and communicating  the situation  to   the  patient   in  a  professional  manner.
  4. The  nurse  should know  how  to treat  at  higher  level  and middle  level  by understanding  the  level  of accountability  in  the  situation.
  5. Incorporating  the  desired  activity  into practice  in  a  result  oriented  and  professional  manner  should   be   the  foremost   priority   of  the  nurses.   While  incorporating  the  desired  activity  the  nurses  come  across    various   problems  such  as  issue management  and  competence   skills.

For  a  nurse  to  do  the  duties  in  a  proper  and  systematic  manner   they   should  be well  trained   and  educated  to  carry   out  the  activities    in  a  prolific  manner (Cohen, M.2004).

Among  nurses  we  have  nurses  who  are  registered  nurses   and  enrolled  nurses.  Registered  nurses  are  nurses  known  to  have  good  experience  in their  domain  of working  and  they  are  equipped  with  sound  knowledge  and    management  skills   to  analyze  and  cope   with  the situations  that  arise  in  working  environment(Conway, J.2007).

Enrolled  nurses   play  a  pivotal  role  in  maintaining  the  health  care  of  the  patients.  Enrolled  nurses   work  generally  within  the  supervision   of  the  registered   nurses.  Enrolled  nurses  have   to  develop  competency  levels  in  them  and   should   work   in   a   professional  manner   by   displaying   bioethics  in  every   sphere   of  their   work.

Enrolled   nurses  are  not  given   major   responsibilities   and roles  because  they   are  still    not  equipped   with  the  skills   and   management  abilities.  Enrolled   nurses  work  under  registered  nurses   and  do   the  required  duties   as  per  the  requirement.

Enrolled   nurses  are  expected   to   build   the   desired   qualities  that  make  them   a  professional  nurse (Curtis, E. &Nicholl, H. 2004).  Enrolled  nurses  must  learn  to  collaborate  with   the  patient  and  with  the  higher  health  authorities   to  make  the  treatment   of  the patient  smooth   and  problem  free.    Enrolled  nurses  by  working  under  the  supervision  of  registered  nurses  build   their   management  skills   so  that  if  they   counter   a  situation  in their  future  than  they  should  be able   to  handle  it  on their  own.

Registered  nurses  are  expected   to  carry  out  the  processes  in  an  effective   and  smooth manner.  Health  of  the  patients   depends  a  lot   on  the  way  the   nurses   take  care   and  carry  forward  the treatment.  The  health  of  the   patient   depends   on  the  way  the  treatment  has  been administered   and   this  involves  various  parameters  such  as  time   to  time analyses  of  the situation  and  checking  the  parameters  on  routine  basis  and   if  anything  goes  wrong  than   how   to deal  with   the  situation,  all these  aspects has  to  be

considered   by   the  nurse.

Registered  nurse   is  expected   to have   the  capacity   to  handle  health  assessments ,  critical  diseases  care   and  carry  out  clinical   assessment   on their   own.  Registered    nurse    should   be  well  versed  with  the  procedures   to be  carried   out  to  the  patients  during  different  scenarios (. Day, G., Minichiello, V. & Madison, J. 2007).  While  dealing  with   the  patients   and  the higher  health  authorities   nurses   are  expected   to  have  a  set up  and  individual   concentration   in   an  free  and  smooth  manner.   Individual.  A set   up   includes   dealing  with  the  patient  by  collaborating    with  the   respective   persons  without  any  communication  gap.  While  collaborating  many  aspects  and  critical  details  should  be taken  into  account.  Critical  details   if  not  taken  into  account  in  a  serious   and  rigid  manner   and  if  anything  goes  wrong  by  a  small percentage   also  than  the  life  of  the patient  will  be  at  risk.   Nurses   should  be  vigilant   and  tactical   enough  to   manage   the   situation.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Health   assessments  that  are  carried  out  by  registered  nurses   play  an  important  role  in  determining   the  condition  of  the  patient   and  gives   an  idea  for  the  higher  health  authorities  as  to  what  is   the  situation  of   the patient   and   what  actions   have   to  be  taken. If  the  health  assessment  is  not  done  in  an  accurate  manner  than  the  medicines  administered  to  the patient   might   not  be  as  per   the requirement  and   the  health  of   the patient  may  deteriorate   due   to   administration  of   unsuitable   medicines.  In  this  way   the   health   assessment   done   by  registered   nurses  plays   a  vital  role  in  determining   the  course  of  action  to  be  taken   over   the  patient.

Chronic   disease   management   is  another  important   task  of  registered  nurses  and   this  requires   skills   and  impeccable   management   capabilities   of  the nurses   are tested  here.   During   chronic   disease  management   various   dangerous   diseases   such  as  cancer,  cystic  fibrosis  should  be  managed  with utmost  care  and  any  amount  of   negligence  and   lethargy  shown  by   the nurses   could  put  the patient  life  in  trouble.  During   chronic   disease  management   the  nurses   have   to  keep   a  check  on  the patients   vital  parameters  constantly   and  should   administer  the  necessary   tests  and  sample collection   as   per   the requirement.

The   chronic   disease  management   included  the management   of   heart  diseases,  lung  diseases,  brain  diseases  and  other   important  diseases.  During   chronic  disease  management    the  patient   should   be  given    utmost  care   and  high level  of   concern  from  the nurses.  Various   tests   performed   on  the  patient  during  critical   disease  management   should  be done in  an  accurate   and  precise  manner.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


The        various    tests   during   chronic  disease  management   needs  full support  of  the nurses  in   taking  care   of  the patient   in  an intensive  manner   and  administering  other  formalities  such  as documentation   procedures.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

The  education  of  the nurses  plays  an  important  role  during  chronic  disease  management  and  this   should  be given  utmost   priority (Khomeiran, R. Yekta, Z. Kiger, A. &Ahmadi, F. 2006).  Nurses  required  advance  training   during  the  treatment  of  chronic  diseases  and  this   includes  the   management  of   multiple   works  during  a  quick  session  of   time  and   yielding   high quality  treatment  to  the patient   and  showing  desired  results  of   the  treatment   is  an  important   work  of  the nurses.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

The   work  of  the nurses  in chronic  disease  management   always   requires   high competency  skills  and registered  nurses  are  expected  to deliver  high competency skills  during  chronic  disease  management. Competency  skills  include  the  nutrition  to  be given  and  maintaining   the  health  record   of  the patients  on  timely  basis  and  informing   the   doctors  and  other  medical  staff  of  the changes  in  conditions  and  latest  developments(Meretoja, R. &Leino-Kilpi, H. 2003).Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Apart  from  chronic  disease  management  other  important  task  of  registered  nurses  is  to  do  the  clinical  tests  and  check other  parameters   on their   own.  This   requires  adequate   training  for  the   registered  nurses  and  experience   and  practice   plays  an  important   role  in   helping    the  registered   nurses  do  their   duties   with  efficiency  and  accuracy.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Registered   nurses  may  also  qualify  for   the   role  of preceptors  because   of their   experience   and  skills  and their  abilities  to manage   things  in  an efficient  manner  qualifies  them   for  the position  of preceptor  nurses (Hunter, S. McMillan, M. & Conway, J. 2007).

Preceptor   nurses  have  the  work  of  training  other  enrolled   and student  nurses  and  inculcating  them  with   the  necessary   skills  and training  procedure   and making  them  suitable   and  equipped   to  deal  with  tough  situations.  Preceptor  nurses   have   to   develop   the  sense  of   difficult   management  and   teach   enrolled  nurses  as  how  to  take  bold  and tough  decisions   in critical   times   should  be  practically  taught  to  the  student  and enrolled  nurses.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Student  nurses  and  enrolled  nurses  who  have  begun  practicing  the training  for  their  careers  should  be   taught   in  a  systematic  and  step by step manner  as  to  how  to maintain  professional  ethics  and  do their  duties   in  an  efficient  manner (Iley, K. 2004).   Care  should  be taken  in  hospitals   when  critical  and  chronic  disease  management  situation  comes  into  picture  than  the  enrolled  and  student  nurses  should  not  be  in  such  situations    without  proper  training  and  experience.  If  the  student   and enrolled  nurses  are  put  into  tight  situations  without  adequate  training  than  even   a small minor  mistake  by them   could  cost  the  life   of  the  patient.   The  various   clinical  tests  and   health  assessment   tasks  that  are  to  be  performed   should  be  taught  to  the   enrolled   and   student  nurses.

Enrolled   and  student   nurses   should  concentrate  hard  to  uplift  their  skills  to  the   critical   situations   and  make  themselves  equipped  with  adequate  training  so  that  when they begin  to  perform  their  tests  and   assessment  on   their   own  than  there  should  not  be  any   mistakes (Meretoja, R. Leino-Kilpi, H. &Kaira, A. 2004). Enrolled  nurses  and  student  nurses  generally   take  care   of  the  ordinary  works  of  the  nursing  department  such  as  giving  injections   and  routine  drugs  for  the  patients   and  help registered  nurses   in  their  duties.  Registered  nurses  are  placed   in  specialized   departments   where  acute  care   is required   for   the   patients (Duffield, C. Forbes, J. Fallon, A. Roche, M. Wise, W. & Merrick, E. 2005).

Proper   support   and   orientation   towards   the  task  should  be  given   for  the  enrolled  and   student  nurses  so  that they   understand   the  seriousness   required   by  them  to perform   the duties  with   utmost  concentration   and   upto  full potential.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

In  the  clinincalenvirionment  conclusive   setting  should  be  provided  to  the nurses  so  that they can  go about  and  do their  dutites  in  a  free and   happy manner  without  any disturbances.

The  working  environment   should   be   suitable  for   the  nurses   to  go  on  with  their  routine  works  and duties.

The   problem  nurses  face  in  the  beginning  of  their  career   should  be  addressed  by  health  authorities  so  that  nurses  can  carry   on   their   day  to   day  duties  in  an  smooth  manner  and  full-fledged  manner.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Nurses   should  be   treated  in  a  proper  manner  by their  superiors  and   superiors  should  understand  that  if  they  perform  any mistakes  in    their  work  than  they  should  be   explained   and  taught  in  a proper  manner  to  rectify  their  mistakes  and  move  on with  their  duties.  Nurses   should   be  given   respect  and   value  for  their  work   and  should  be  treated   in  a  honorable  and  nice  manner (Milson-Hawke, S. Higgins, I. 2004).   While   doing  their  duties   the  nurses   should  be truly  professional   and  should   try  to maintain  any personal  relationships   with  anybody.  The  persons  collaborating  with  the   nurses    should  be  in  their  limits  of  maintaining  professional   relationships   and  should   never  indulge   in  any  activity    that   is   not  professional.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

The  patients  who  remain  in  the  hospital   should   treat  the  nurses  with  respect   and  give  credibility   to   the  nurses   for  performing   their  duties   in   a  sincere   and   honest  manner.  Nurses   should   not   be  put   in  tremendous   pressure   to   do  their  duties  and  show  concrete   results.  Many  of   the  hospitals   if  they  shortage  of  nurses   try   to  over use  the  nurses   present  in  the  hospital  by  making  them   do  more  duties   and  work  over time.   Nurses   should   not  be  forced   to  manage    many  tasks   because   nurses   need   to  give  more  individual  attention   to   the  patients  and  need  peace   of   mind  while  carrying  their  respective   duties.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.


Nurses       should   be  given   proper   facilities    to  carry forward  their                            routine  duties.  Proper  facilities   includes   the  injections, syringes  and  other   important  equipment  that  is  essential  for  them  to carry  forward  their  duties.  The  hospital  authorities   should  not  put  pressure  on  the  nurses   to  manage   the  healthcare   work   by  using   the  facilities   and   required   equipment   in  a  minimal   manner.  Nurses   should   not  be  told   to  work  over time  for  longer  hours   due   to  shortage  in  staff.  Hospital  authorities   should   have  adequate   hospital  staff  to  meet  the needs  of   the  patients


Society   is   highly  dependent   on  the  nursing   to  maintain   the  standards   of    healthcare  sector   and   administer  quality   treatment   to   the   ill  and  elderly   persons   in   the  society.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

The   registered  nurses ,  student  nurses   and  enrolled   nurses    should   have   an  amicable   and  understanding  relationship   so  that  they  can   manage  their   tasks  in  a  smooth  manner   and  deliver   the  expected   treatment   in  a  systematic   and  disciplined   way. Nurses  in various  levels  of their  career  should  give  respect   to   their  colleagues  and  seniors   and  do  their  duties  in  a  proper  fashion.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.

Nursing  sector in  Australia  has  lived   up   to  the  expectations   of   the  society    by   administering  quality   treatment   to   the  people  of  the  society  and   the   present  situation  demands   challenging   works   for  the  nursing  sector   in  the  health care field.Professional Issues in Nursing Essay.