NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion

NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion

Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. Support your rationale with evidence-based literature. NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion




Psychotherapy can produce changes in the brain. Changes that can be detected with FMRI, which measure brain activity. Mental health illnesses like depression affects individual’s mood. People with depression, psychotherapy has shown to reduce activity in areas in the brain linked to sadness and depression like the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (Huether & McCance,2017). The amygdale controls fear and emotion. Hippocampus regulate emotions and memory. The medial prefrontal cortex controls problem solving and critical thinking. A combination of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy can be effective. However, many forms of psychotherapy including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to have positive outcome for treatment for depression. CBT is based on the cognitive model, focusing on altering a persons view of them self, situation, and surrounding resources (Wheeler, 2014). A systematic review and meta-analysis study led by James, Michael, Danielle, and Deirdre indicated that cognitive behavior therapy is an effective treatment for reducing anxiety and depression among clients suffering from cardiovascular disease and inconsideration in standard clinical care (James, Michael, Danielle, & Deirdre, 2018). Psychotherapy, CBT has biological basis.


Psychotherapy treatment involves communication between client and provider.

Although, researcher has proven the success with psychotherapy, many cultures and religions do not believe or understand the concept due to past experiences, finance, or mistrust. In Africa,  many suffered from personal distress and despair. The past tragedies and horrific incidents includes, 1994 Genocide in Rwanda, HIV/AIDs pandemic, 1998 bombing in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and post-election violence (Nwoye, 2010). Many lives lost and thousands displaced from their homes. Psychotherapy in Africa is imperative. A goal for change or challenging negative and unrealistic beliefs, prejudices, and myths about themselves, the world, and others is important for future generations. NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion




James, R., Michael, H., Danielle, C., & Deirdre, A. (2018). Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80(8), 742–753. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000626

Wheeler, K. (Eds.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company

NWOYE A. A psycho-cultural history of psychotherapy in Africa. Psychotherapy & Politics International. 2010;8(1):26-43. doi:10.1002/ppi.207 NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion


Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology. St. Louis,

MO: Mosby.


sample response

Thank you for your very informative post.

In my research I discovered that ethnic minorities have a much higher rate of premature termination of psychotherapy.   It appears that having a therapist low in perceived multicultural knowledge is a high indicator of premature termination of therapy.  Premature termination of psychotherapy often results in diminished treatment outcomes, which are associated with continued functional impairment and heavy utilization of public health resources (Anderson et al., 2019, p. 107).  There are potential interventions that can be used by providers to reduce premature termination, NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion

Progress is being made in developing culturally aware interventions to better serve the mental health needs of ethnic minorities.  There are several ways to accomplish this. Adapted interventions can focus on certain domains that are relevant to cultural issues.  Addressing  issues and cultural complexities that are often salient to the life experiences of ethnic minority individuals;  orienting clients to the processes and goals of mental health care; understanding cultural beliefs about mental illness, mental health, and helpseeking;  strengthening the working alliance or relationship between clients and therapists;  accommodating cultural variations in how clients express, and manage emotional distress; and addressing cultural issues and life stressors that may be especially salient for ethnic minority patients (Anderson et al., 2019, p. 107).


Anderson, K. N., Bautista, C. L., & Hope, D. A. (2019). Therapeutic alliance, cultural competence and minority status in premature termination of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry89(1), 104–114.

Zane, N., Kim, J., & Gatuaco, K. (2016). Cultural Adaptations: Tools for Evidence-Based Practice With Diverse Populations. In Evidence based psychological practice with ethnic minorities (1st ed., pp. 169–198). American Psychological Association. NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion

response 2

Thank you for your post. African people have certainly experienced some tragic and terrifying events. With many African’s living in tribal communities and with a belief system based on traditional medicine that encompasses not only the physical aspect but also a spiritual one – how do you think that would be best be approached?

Psychotherapy has proven to be an effective form of treatment of mental disorders in the western part of the world, but it is viewed as an alien method of treatment to Africans. They don’t view the treatment of psychological disorders as something that is just between client and therapist – it is a community responsibility. As well, they often view psychological disorders as a spiritual emergency, not something that is biologically wrong with the brain (Jidda et al, 2010).

Traditional African healing has been around for centuries. It is not necessarily tied into worshipping a God, but ancestors. The healers, or Shaman, often use herbs, roots, and other items that come from the earth to heal the ill. Anything other is approached with skepticism (Mokobi, 2014).

A favorite story of mine is about an African Shaman who came to the U.S.A. in the 1980s and was appalled at how we treated our mentally ill. Here’s the link.


Mokobi, M. G. (2014). Understanding traditional African healing. African Journal of Physical Health Education Recreational Dance; 20(Suppl 2): 24–34.

Jidda, M. S., Wakil,  M. A., and Mohammad, A. O. (2010). The Effectiveness of Western Psychotherapy in treating Psychological Disorders among Subsaharan African Populations. A Systematic Review of the Literature. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry, 8; 1 NRNP 6640 Week 1 discussion