Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Working in the mental health field has exposed me to different clients with psychosocial behaviors, and I have viewed how individuals are often impacted in our cultural, societal and environmental system. I have also observed the impact it has in clients when there are policy changes in an agency. The focus of this analysis is to further provide an examination of agency policies, operations conflict, steps that can be taken in administrative level and steps in the micro level to resolve conflicts that may arise. The focus of this analysis will also concentrate on a community mental health agency named Enki Health & Research System, Inc., (ENKI) that helps children with different behavioral difficulties. Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay


One way in which your agency’s policies or operations reflect the value-base of the social work profession.
The identified agency is Enki Health & Research Systems, Inc., (ENKI) office in El Monte. Enki provides mental health services in different service areas and offers mental health services to children and families, as well as adults, and also focuses on providing services for youth and families. ENKI’s current mission is to provide, “Multicultural & Multilingual behavioral health services to SED children and adolescents and severely and persistently mentally,” (ENKI, 2012).

If health services research is a relatively new discipline, mental health services research is of even more recent vintage. In a brief ten or fifteen years the initial group of mental health services researchers have built on the early foundation of studies in health care and expanded the knowledge base, particularly regarding systems of care and the relationship of public and private services.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Health care reform comes at an opportune time, as the debate demonstrates daily the need for systematic knowledge to answer immediate questions and to develop, support, or oppose the myriad proposals and permutations under consideration. Whatever the outcome of the reform process, it is abundantly clear that services research is an essential element of the health care infrastructure.

Mental health now constitutes one of the most promising areas of opportunity in health services research. The availability of credible mental health information—unexpected by many policymakers—in the health care reform debate has enhanced the stature of the research and its practitioners. The reform debate itself has highlighted both the common and the specialized mental health issues within the health care framework.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The public sector remains the predominant source of funds for mental health services research, primarily via the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and other federal agencies. On the private side, a review of annual reports of various private foundations with significant health services research interests reveals none with a specific focus on mental health. However, most of these foundations have funded several projects involving mental health in conjunction with their major areas of focus, such as substance abuse, homelessness, elderly, children, education, and primary health care. These include The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Commonwealth Fund, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Milbank Memorial Fund, and The William T. Grant Foundation, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation health program, which does not accept unsolicited proposals, supports two endeavors to conduct and/or publish significant mental health services research: the Mental Health Policy Resource Center and Health Affairs. In addition, MacArthur’s Law and Mental Health Research Network focuses on many issues germane to mental health services research. This essay examines the development of mental health services research and the opportunities for future research that merit the attention of both public- and private-sector funders and researchers.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Unlike other areas of health, mental health has long looked to a single federal agency—NIMH—as the major source of national funding for all types of research, services, training, and statistics. Perhaps for that reason, NIMH has defined the services research arena somewhat more broadly than does the Association for Health Services Research (AHSR), which defines services research as “a field of inquiry that examines the impact of the organization, financing and management of health care services on the delivery, quality, cost, access to and outcomes of such services.” For NIMH, the boundaries among clinical, epidemiological, treatment, and services research are not always clear. For instance, considerable attention has been devoted to distinguishing between clinical services research and service systems research, both of which have been treated as part of mental health services research.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Mental health services research began in the late 1970s and early 1980s; it grew out of NIMH’s epidemiology and data collection programs and emphasized statistical information and economics. The priority of the institute during this time was the public mental health system and the primary public patient population—persons with serious and persistent mental illness—and this priority was reflected in the services research program. In its 1991 report, Caring for People with Severe Mental Disorders: A National Plan of Research to Improve Services , a chapter entitled “Clinical Services Research: Enhancing the Real-World Applications of Clinical Science” articulates the boundary with other types of research:Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Clinical services research begins where clinical research itself leaves off. It is concerned with the application of clinical knowledge gained in a controlled research environment, to the larger, relatively uncontrolled environment in which the mentally ill actually function. Its goal is to improve the quality of care of everyday clinical practices so that they consistently meet existing state-of-the-art criteria. 1

Major areas of concern for this research include salient characteristics of mental illness, such as demographics, risk factors, cultural influences, and family issues; assessment in terms of specific diagnoses as well as physical, social, and vocational functioning; specific treatment and rehabilitation interventions; and outcomes and effectiveness of services.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The next chapter of NIMH’s 1991 report, “Service Systems Research: Improving the Organization and Financing of Care,” describes service systems research as focusing on how to provide services most efficiently, economically, and equitably. It encompasses a broad and eclectic set of questions and issues: identifying the nature and scope of local needs; matching local services to needs; structuring integrated care that reaches the consumer; allocating financial resources so that consumers and providers have proper protection and incentives to use services appropriately; legal issues such as the role of the criminal justice system, civil commitment, patient rights, and confidentiality; human resource issues; and stigma and strategies for changing attitudes.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Reorganization Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-321) split the services and research programs of NIMH, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and transferred the three as research-only institutes to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Services research went with the research portfolios, protected by a mandatory set-aside—12 percent of research funds in fiscal year 1993 and 15 percent in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 must be spent on services research. The new Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)—including its new mental health component, the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS)—was given evaluation authority but no specific funding in the form of a line item to support evaluation studies.

The ADAMHA Reorganization Act defined health services research as “study of the impact of the organization, financing, and management of health services on the quality, cost, access to, and outcomes of care.” This definition is essentially the same as that used by AHSR. Mental health services research may be defined most simply as a subset of this domain.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Given the mandated set-aside, it has become particularly important to distinguish between mental health services research and other forms of research. A recent work group convened by the Foundation for Health Services Research (FHSR) suggested two key distinguishing factors: (1) the intent of the study and nature of the hypotheses, and (2) the distinction between studies of factors influencing the effectiveness of health services in “real-world settings” (health services research) and studies concerning the efficacy of specific preventive, diagnostic, or treatment services done under highly controlled conditions (not health services research). 2 One NIMH services research official recently offered the following general definition:Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Services research differs from treatment research, which examines clinical treatments under highly controlled experimental conditions, by including factors such as costs, reimbursement mechanisms, treatment ideologies, and personal and organizational interests that affect how providers actually deliver services.

For this essay we reviewed recent and active projects in mental health services research and consulted with selected knowledgeable persons; this provides a descriptive snapshot of the kind of work currently funded and under way. This base, together with the newer areas of priority resulting from the health care reform process, suggests many promising opportunities for the future.

For an overview of recent grants identified as mental health projects, we turned to the Health Services Research Grants Information System, a database of ongoing and recently completed health services research projects that is being developed by FHSR and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This database, whose creation was funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, will allow researchers as well as policymakers to keep abreast of current research, rather than waiting until the results are published.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The Health Services Research Grants Information System will become a part of the National Library of Medicine’s MEDLARS system. The information system is scheduled for completion in late 1993. Information in the database will include the name and address of the performing organization and principal investigator, amount of the award, an abstract of the project, and a description of the population studied. Initial funding agencies include the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), NIH, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and seven private foundations (The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, The John A. Hartford Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, The Commonwealth Fund, and The William T. Grant Foundation). Additional federal agencies and private foundations will join the effort in the future.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Our database search turned up nearly 200 grants (of a total of 1,500 listed) that focused on mental health issues. All but a handful were funded by NIMH and other federal agencies. Of these, roughly one-third could be generally categorized as targeting services for persons with the most serious mental illnesses. The remaining two-thirds covered a wide spectrum of topics, including mental health issues related to aging, women, family violence, adoption, various minority groups, alcohol and/or drug abuse (which generally coincide with mental health problems), general health care, homelessness, and many more.

NIMH is by far the largest funder of projects identified specifically as mental health services research. The NIMH Services Research Branch oversees a broad program of investigator-initiated grants addressing virtually any area related to mental health services. Funding in fiscal year 1987 was $18 million. The current set-aside (12 percent of the total NIMH research budget) translates into roughly $50 million for fiscal year 1993.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

More than 250 active grants (listed with NIMH as of January 1993) are concentrated in the following areas in descending order: severely mentally ill adults; mental health economics; children and adolescents; rural mental health; adult primary health care; and multiple diagnoses of alcohol, drug abuse, and mental (ADM) disorders. Significant numbers focus on mental health service systems, minority mental health, homeless mentally ill, and research scientist awards, and some are devoted to disability and rehabilitation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, self-help services, research methods, and state research capacity building.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

NIMH has established a program to develop and maintain Centers for Research in particular areas of priority: severely mentally ill adults, children and adolescents, minority mental health, rural mental health, and self-help. Exhibit 1 lists specific grant announcements that detail areas of focus and priority.

In addition to NIMH, a variety of federal agencies have services research programs that include mental health issues as a component, although not as a priority. Agencies that are funding projects included in the FHSR database are the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institute on Aging (NIA), NIDA, NIAAA, HCFA, the Office of Rural Health Policy, the National Center for Nursing Research, and AHCPR.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The heightened health care reform debate has accelerated the development of agendas in mental health services research and is likely to provide a framework for setting priorities for the next several years, both in foundations and in the various federal agencies. Even at this early date it is possible to discern several significant themes. These can provide some guidance for the development of mental health services research ideas and extended programs during the next several years.

The issue of risk adjustment in health insurance has particular relevance to mental health. Risk adjustment has to do with the probability that any given health plan may become responsible for a larger number of persons with more serious health problems than other competing health plans-Health plans that fear this situation could develop procedures that discriminate against persons with known high-cost illnesses; the more severe mental illnesses, as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, and others, lead the list of illnesses that insurers wish to avoid. A concern will be how to protect health plans with disproportionate numbers of high-risk enrollees and how to protect high-risk persons from creative forms of exclusion.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Mental Health
Mental health is a term that refers to a person’s psychological, emotional, behavioral and social well-being – how a person thinks, feels, acts, relates to others, makes choices and handles stress. The term is also sometimes used to denote the absence of mental illness. Some psychologists and health experts have proposed a spectrum of symptoms, with good mental health at one end and mental disorders at the other.

Being mentally healthy is one of the most important things in life – it contributes to physical health and happiness, makes a person resilient and capable of handling adversity in all its forms.

What is Mental Illness
Mental illness is a wide-ranging term encompassing several conditions that affect how a person thinks, feels or acts. Mental illness also affects a person’s ability to negotiate day-to-day life. According to experts, anyone can become a victim of mental illness, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity or socio-economic status.

Statistically, about 1 in 5 Americans suffer from some form of mental illness, with a large proportion experiencing more than one. In fact, mental illness in the United States and much of the developed world, is a leading cause of disability.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Some of the factors that contribute to mental illness include:

Biological factors – brain chemistry, genes, certain kinds of brain infection or defects, injury to the brain, prenatal trauma
Psychological factors – Physical/sexual/emotional abuse, neglect, early loss of an important loved one
Environmental factors – Dysfunctional family life, divorce or death of spouse or parents, changing schools, jobs or homes, substance abuse, socio-cultural expectations
Mental illness is common, but many disorders can be treated and a lot of people with mental health problems do get better or even recover completely.

Here is a comprehensive list of mental health essays and academic papers that explore the subject from various perspectives.

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay


Over the course of your life, if you experience mental health problems, your thinking, mood, and behavior could be affected. Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including:

Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry
Life experiences, such as trauma or abuse
Family history of mental health problems
Mental health problems are common but help is available. People with mental health problems can get better and many recover completely.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

There is ample evidence that people living with mental problems can recover under favorable routine treatment and practices (Caputi, Oades, & Andresen, 2011, p. 194). However, there is need for robust community education on the signs, symptoms, precautions and potential practices for the recovery. The program to reach families, consumers and the public on the creation of awareness and promotion of the mental recovery can be done through workshops, presentations, organized forums and chances for the talks (Jacobson, 2012, pp. 35-36). In this concept, the family members and community at large need to comprehend that recovery is the ability of an individual to lead a meaningful life personally and in community. In addition, wide-range mental recovery community education is essential to enable the clients redefine sense of identity positively, understand perspectives involved in making certain life adjustments, overcoming stigma and living hopeful for the future. In this context, the need for the wide-range community education on mental recovery is necessitated by the acknowledgement of mental recovery as both process and an outcome.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay
Importance of Recovery Concepts to the Family, Friends and Public
The ultimate goal for the wide-range mental recovery education for the entire community is enshrined objectively on the restoration of normalcy in the state of mental health (Gluck, 2011, p. 19). In this context, the education is essential to sharpen family members and the community about the models deployable in mental recovery. Through the community-based education on mental recovery, the members are provided with the opportunity to understand recovery pathways for the individual with different potentials to recover. In fact, there is the clinical recovery model essential for the community in the bid to reduce symptomatology, complete hospitalization and medication for positive outcome in recovery process. However, the community needs to understand the personal role on the recovery outcome driven by the living mannerism of the individuals. Indeed, there is sense of mental recovery through the personal-based views on the experiences driven by factors such as empowerment, hopeful future, self-guided principles, healing process and the ability to control the symptoms.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay
Mental Recovery Key Concepts
After a series of catastrophic experiences with mental illness, different people within the circle of psychiatric needs develop various definitions of the recovery concepts (Watkins, 2010, p. 89). Therefore, family members and the entire community requires integrated knowledge to understand the concepts of mental health recovery in ensuring complete absence of signs and symptoms of mental illness. It is vital for the community to be knowledgeable on these concepts to be in position of providing enabling environment for the recovering individuals. In this sense, the society will be knowledgeable on the fact that recovery process involve struggle that might be prolonged by the extremes of the symptoms, side effects of the clinical recovery and problems in socioeconomic circumstances. The gap between the affected and the normal society gradually widens in absence of the required knowledge therefor it is important to have this knowledge and at accessible places to the society.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The act of recovery for the mental illness requires the understanding of the core concepts to engage in healthy practices leading to total recovery as demonstrated by Brown in his work (Brown C. , 2012, pp. 145-146). In this concept, family members and the society need to understand the factors forming the recovery concept such the hope for the future. Hope is essential for the mental recovery in the sense that it allows the ill to decry from the feeling of being out of control and vulnerable. The elements and environment of hope give those with mental problem tangible sense of relieve from helplessness, despondency and desperation as well as demoralization. The other concept of the recovery involve the personal responsibility reliable for the healthy practices essential for the entire society and hence the need for wide-scale education on the recovery. The education will enable the society to take part in educating the persons on the need for personal acceptance, determination and choice.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

In addition, education is yet another concept on the mental recovery that requires the acknowledgement in large scale (Pilgrim, 2014, p. 182). Indeed, education is relevant in the making of informed choices for the positive outcomes in the recovery process that the family and the society require. Consequently, education leads to wellness that comes because of the participation of the adults in creating the awareness and self-knowledge. Recovery is, in part, the ability to recognize own identity and voice essential for the access of the resources for the recovery process enhancement (Davidson, McDiarmid, & Ridgway, 2012, pp. 134-135). The society needs the wide-scale education on recovery for the fact that the ability to advocate for the individual rights successfully requires courage and support from self-advocacy.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay Furthermore, the wide-scale information enables the family members, professionals and friends and the community to support the recovery process. There is power in the mutual understanding, mutual respect and relationship and responsibility in fostering and promoting recovery. In fact, recovery is centered in the development of strong support systems rooted on the mutual respect and community integration.
Relevance of Better Recovery Concepts
From the understanding of the concepts of recovery, the family members and community are in the position to promote mental health. The conclusions can be drawn that the knowledge creates an enabling environment to develop positive self-esteem, value for the self-identification and wellness (Townsend, 2013, p. 67). The potential impacts range from the promotion of regaining resiliency in order to help them cope with the circumstances. In addition, the community is able to reflect on the possible prevention strategies through the interventions on the high-risk individuals. In the same point, the community embraces the importance of recognizing the usefulness and personal resourcefulness of the persons with mental illness. The education is indicative to the knowledge to understand on how to accept and accommodate diverse ideas on the mental illness, treatment and recovery. The general public plays a role in the role of the recovery process as the education provide platform for balanced treatment and evidence-based approach.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay
Role of Consumers in Wide-Scale Recovery Education
The involvement of the consumers in the recovery education is potentially important in enhancement of the effective strategies to influence positive outcome during recovery process (Hayes & Stout, 2011, pp. 87-88). The participation of the consumers in the wide-scale recovery education is relevant in the sense that the involved parties are able to set up clear principles in the production of clean products for the recovery and elimination of tokenism. The consumers are the stakeholders who present their issues to the experts in order to undertake the necessary research and evaluation of the recovery services and products (Johnson, 2012, pp. 342-344). In the context, consumers play a key role in the development of the right and positive attitude towards the constructive changes. Consumer’s participation fosters great innovation on recovery-oriented treatment and the proper support for the chosen recovery outcome. The consumer’s participation is relevant in the review of the professional education regarding the recovery process and practices.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

Consumer’s involvement plays a key role in all the aspects of the mental recovery procedures for it facilitates and encourages a more responsive method to the needs of the consumers based on the real experiences (Wasow & Lefley, 2013, p. 32). In this context, the consumers are in the position to provide the first-hand information regarding individual and collective recovery. It is important to mention that the participation of the consumers improves the aspects of the health care provision in the sense that they are proactive in the development of strategic design, putting into practical the care designs and evaluation of the mental recovery services (Brown L. , 2011, p. 132). However, despite the role of providing the information, the consumers are important in the recovery education in the bid to understand the need to embrace personal responsibility for their mental health and their recovery. The participation encourages the consumers to undertake their own recovery paths.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay
In conclusion, the mental health recovery involves complete elimination of the signs and symptoms of the mental illness. The illness impairs the resourcefulness of the individuals in the public in the role of labor capacity building. Recovery represents various convergent ideas such as hope, self-encouragement, empowerment and education for an ultimate goal to give the mental signals a new direction. The family, friends, community participation and the elimination of barriers and wide-scale education to the community is fundamental in promotion and adoption of a healthy recovery process. The wide-scale recovery education assists in building skills in maintain healthy relationship between the mentally ill, families and carers. The involvement of the consumers the health care providers in promoting hopeful outlook to the patients and in turn facilitate proper platform for recovery.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay

The Analysis of Mental Health and Adolescents

That’s the thing about depression: A human being can survive almost anything, as long as she sees the end in sight. But depression is so insidious, and it compounds daily, that it’s impossible to ever see the end. – Elizabeth Wurtzel, Prozac Nation

As teenagers go through stages of puberty, one may become emotionally confused about different events. Teenagers experience stress of gaining or maintaining a new job, increase on schoolwork and misunderstanding parents. As the ups and downs in life occur, some seem to mentally last longer than others. Mental health amongst adolescents is an every day issue. Within a society of rules and norms; mental health problems with teenagers result in different reactions. The top three mental health issues amongst teens are depression, self-harm, and suicide.

Firstly, depression can be linked back to family members with depression. As the genetics pass on so does the mental health issues. For example, if the parent(s) suffered from depression in their teenager years, the child is more likely to suffer around the same time. The genetic risk of developing clinical depression is about 40% (Black Dog, 2013). Secondly, stress can lead to depression. Stress can come from work, family and financial issues.Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay For example, working two jobs and trying to make ends meet can be overwhelming. This can trigger depression as one ends up feeling lonely and unable to do basic things. As a teenager, some are forced to work two jobs in order to provide basic necessities. Thirdly, underemployment or unemployment can cause depression through financial issues (Financial Highway, 2013). Basic necessities cannot be provided for one’s self or family. This contributes to self-esteem as having no money means not having decent clothes or money to go places. For example, at school kids would have the latest fashion styles, phones and lunch money. A teenager in this atmosphere with this situation would have money for one or none of these things. Surrounded with these tribulations can cause depression amongst adolescents. Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults Essay