Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Choose one of the following case study descriptions and answer the following questions:

Case study 1: Adolescent male (17) with cough. Admits to smoking cigarettes and occasional marijuana.


Case study 2: Adult Female (29) Lives near and works in sugar cane fields. Family Hx asthma. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Case study 3: Elderly male (80) with COPD (Emphysema).

1. What questions would you ask the client to elicit pertinent information that would assist in developing a health promotion plan?

2. What evidence-based practice health promotion nursing interventions (strategies) would you suggest for this patient?

3. What resources and/or technology applications could be provided to guide the patient in self-management of their condition? Be specific by providing an actual, usable app or website. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Please review the Discussion Rubric for detailed requirements of your posts.

Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (from WHO, 1946, in Park, 2005) and Health Promotion has been defined as an enterprise involving the development over time, in individuals and communities, of basic and positive states of and conditions for physical, mental and social health (Raeburn and Rootman, 1998, p.11). This idea of health promotion has been borne out of acceptance of the limitations of curative medicine and therefore, the need to ‘refocus upstream’ (Kemm and Close, 1995, p.7).
Furthermore, the age and stage of development of primary school children provides a unique opportunity for health education (Perkins, et al, 1999, p.177). Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

It is therefore not surprising that asthma education and behavioural contingency plan in school aged children (7-11 years) has been shown to improve health outcomes (Burkhart, 2007). The role of the school based environment in improving outcomes has also been pointed out by Halterman et al, 2004.

Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity
Operational definition
This function includes disease prevention and health promotion.

Disease prevention
Disease prevention, understood as specific, population-based and individual-based interventions for primary and secondary (early detection) prevention, aiming to minimize the burden of diseases and associated risk factors. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Primary prevention refers to actions aimed at avoiding the manifestation of a disease (this may include actions to improve health through changing the impact of social and economic determinants on health; the provision of information on behavioral and medical health risks, alongside consultation and measures to decrease them at the personal and community level; nutritional and food supplementation; oral and dental hygiene education; and clinical preventive services such as immunization and vaccination of children, adults and the elderly, as well as vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to a communicable disease).

Secondary prevention deals with early detection when this improves the chances for positive health outcomes (this comprises activities such as evidence-based screening programs for early detection of diseases or for prevention of congenital malformations; and preventive drug therapies of proven effectiveness when administered at an early stage of the disease). Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

It should be noted that while primary prevention activities may be implemented independently of capacity-building in other health care services, this is not the case for secondary prevention. Screening and early detection is of limited value (and may even be detrimental to the patient) if abnormalities cannot be promptly corrected or treated through services from other parts of the health care system. Moreover, a good system of primary health care with a registered population facilitates the optimal organization and delivery of accessible population based screening programs and should be vigorously promoted. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Health promotion
Health promotion is the process of empowering people to increase control over their health and its determinants through health literacy efforts and multisectoral action to increase healthy behaviors. This process includes activities for the community-at-large or for populations at increased risk of negative health outcomes. Health promotion usually addresses behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, obesity, diet and physical inactivity, as well as the areas of mental health, injury prevention, drug abuse control, alcohol control, health behavior related to HIV, and sexual health.

Disease prevention and health promotion share many goals, and there is considerable overlap between functions. On a conceptual level, it is useful to characterize disease prevention services as those primarily concentrated within the health care sector, and health promotion services as those that depend on intersectoral actions and/or are concerned with the social determinants of health. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay

Scope of the function
Disease prevention
Primary prevention services and activities include:
Vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis of children, adults and the elderly;

Provision of information on behavioural and medical health risks, and measures to reduce risks at the individual and population levels; Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay


Inclusion of disease prevention programmes at primary and specialized health care levels, such as access to preventive services (ex. counselling); and

Nutritional and food supplementation; and

Dental hygiene education and oral health services.

Secondary prevention includes activities such as:
Population-based screening programmes for early detection of diseases;

Provision of maternal and child health programmes, including screening and prevention of congenital malformations; and

Provision of chemo-prophylactic agents to control risk factors (e.g., hypertension)

Health promotion
Policies and interventions to address tobacco, alcohol, physical activity and diet (e.g., FCTC , DPAS , alcohol strategy and NCD best-buys)
Dietary and nutritional intervention should also appropriately tackle malnutrition, defined as a condition that arises from eating a diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high in intake), or in the wrong proportions Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay
Intersectoral policies and health services interventions to address mental health and substance abuse
Strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health, including through health education and increased access to sexual and reproductive health, and family planning services
Strategies to tackle domestic violence, including public awareness campaigns; treatment and protection of victims; and linkage with law enforcement and social services.
Support mechanisms for health promotion and disease prevention
Multisectoral partnerships for health promotion and disease prevention  Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay
Educational and social communication activities aimed at promoting healthy conditions, lifestyles, behavior and environments (see EPHO VII)
Reorientation of health services to develop care models that encourage disease prevention and health promotion
Risk communication. Health Assessment Promotion And Prevention Essay