Foundations of Clinical Research Paper

Foundations of Clinical Research Paper

Write a brief analysis (no longer than 2 pages) of the connection between EBP and the Quadruple Aim. Your analysis should address how EBP might (or might not) help reach the Quadruple Aim, including each of the four measures of: Patient experience Population health Costs Work life of healthcare providers

Topic 3 DQ 2

Factors that must be assessed when critically appraising quantitative studies

Reliability, validity, and applicability are factors that must be evaluated during critical appraisal of quantitative studies. Reliability is the extent to which settings and methods are consistent over time, between researchers and across groups. It is the repeatability or consistency of a study. When critically appraising quantitative studies, it is important to establish if the study is reproducible. A research that is well designed could be repeated at a diverse period or utilizing a diverse population and produce comparable results (Melynk & Fineout-Overholt, 2018).  Foundations of Clinical Research Paper.


 Validity is the truth or accuracy of the data being generated in terms of the concepts under investigation, the objects and people under study, and the methods used in the collection and analysis of data. Validity is determined by whether the study results were gotten through sound scientific methods. The validity of the study findings may be compromised by confounding variables or/and bias.  The less influence confounding factors or bias have on research, the more likely the study y findings will be valid.  Thus, it is crucial to establish if the study was carried out appropriately before it was swayed by results (Melynk and Fineout-Overholt, 2018). Applicability is the extent to which the study findings can be applied in clinical settings. When critically appraising quantitative studies, the clinician must establish if results if the study can be applied to a particular situation, with the incorporation of patient values, expertise, and the clinical setting context (Portney, 2020).

Validity is the most crucial factor to evaluate when critically appraising quantitative studies. Determining if the results produced by a study s can or should be applied in nursing practice entails careful consideration of the validity of the study. Melynk and Fineout-Overholt allege that because all studies have some defects,  the process of critically reviewing should help the clinician deciding if research is flawed to an extent that it should not be considered as a source of evidence. Foundations of Clinical Research Paper.  interpreting study findings requires considering the statistical as well as clinical significant of the study results.



Melynk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2018). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice. Wolters Kluwer Health.

Portney, l.  G. (2020). Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Evidence-Based Practice. F.A. Davis.   Foundations of Clinical Research Paper.