Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay
Walden University NRNP 6660: Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Role I: Child and Adolescent Week 9 IntroductionResourcesAssignmentMaking ConnectionsMy Progress Tracker ☰ Menu Walden University NRNP 6660: Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Role I: Child and Adolescent Week 9 IntroductionResourcesAssignmentMaking ConnectionsMy Progress Tracker ☰ Menu × NRNP 6660: Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Role I: Child and Adolescent Back to Course Home Course Calendar Syllabus Course Information Resource List Support, Guidelines, and Policies Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto Week 9: Early-Onset Schizophrenia \”I can’t believe he is speaking to me! I have always liked his music, but now here he is on TV speaking directly to me! When I started following him on social media, he must have seen my profile. I know he loves me. He cannot love that model I saw with him in the picture. She must be the person following me to school.Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay. I have not seen her, but I know she is there. She does not want me being with him, but I will be with him. He loves me as much as I love him.\” Kaitlyn, age 17 Early-onset schizophrenia is a rare and severe mental illness in which children interpret reality abnormally. There are a range of problems with cognitive functioning, behavior, and emotions. Perceptions may be distorted and children or their parents may report that they have difficulty distinguishing reality. This is a diagnosis that is difficult to confirm in the early stages. This week, you compare evidence-based treatment plans for adults versus children diagnosed with schizophrenia. You analyze the legal and ethical issues involved with forcing patients with early-onset schizophrenia to take medications for the disorder. You also complete a Decision Tree concerning children with psychotic disorders. Learning Resources Required Readings American Nurses Association. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Standard 10 “Quality of Practice” (pages 73-74) American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. “Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders” Giles, L. L., & Martini, D. R. (2016). Challenges and promises of pediatric psychopharmacology. Academic Pediatrics, 16(6), 508-518. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2016.03.011 Hargrave, T. M., & Arthur, M. E. (2015). Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 50(1), 60-72. McClellan, J., & Stock, S. (2013). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(9), 976–990. Retrieved from http://www.jaacap.com/article/S0890-8567(13)00112-3/pdf Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. Chapter 31, “Child Psychiatry” (pp. 1268–1283) Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using the link. This link will take you to a login page for the Walden Library. Once you log in to the library, the Stahl website will appear. To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th Ed. tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication. Review the following medications: Schizoaffective disorder Schizophrenia amisulpride aripiprazole asenapine carbamazepine (adjunct) chlorpromazine clozapine cyamemazine flupenthixol haloperidol iloperidone lamotrigine (adjunct) l-methylfolate (adjunct) loxapine lurasidone mesoridazine molindone olanzapine paliperidone perospirone perphenazine pipothiazine quetiapine risperidone sertindole sulpiride thioridazine thiothixene trifluoperazine valproate (divalproex) (adjunct) ziprasidone zotepine zuclopenthixol amisulpride aripiprazole asenapine carbamazepine (adjunct) chlorpromazine clozapine cyamemazine flupenthixol haloperidol iloperidone lamotrigine (adjunct) l-methylfolate (adjunct) loxapine lurasidone mesoridazine molindone olanzapine paliperidone perospirone perphenazine pipothiazine quetiapine risperidone sertindole sulpiride thioridazine thiothixene trifluoperazine valproate (divalproex) (adjunct) ziprasidone zotepine zuclopenthixol Note: Many of these medications are FDA approved for adults only. Some are FDA approved for disorders in children and adolescents. Many are used “off label” for the disorders examined in this week. As you read the Stahl drug monographs, focus your attention on FDA approvals for children/adolescents (including “ages” for which the medication is approved, if applicable) and further note which drugs are “off label.” Required Media Laureate Education (Producer). (2017b). A young girl with strange behaviors [Multimedia file]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Optional Resources Thapar, A., Pine, D. S., Leckman, J. F., Scott, S., Snowling, M. J., & Taylor, E. A. (2015). Rutter’s child and adolescent psychiatry (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell. Chapter 57, “Schizophrenia and Psychosis” (pp. 774–794) Assignment: Early Onset Schizophrenia Children and adolescents with schizophrenia have more difficulty functioning in academic or work settings, and significant impairment usually persists into adulthood. They may have speech or language disorders and in some cases borderline intellectual functioning. These individuals are more likely to complete suicide attempts or die from other accidental causes. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and behavior disturbance. Negative symptoms include blunted affect and attention, apathy, and lack of motivation and social interest. In this Assignment, you compare treatment plans for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia. You also consider the legal and ethical issues involved in medicating children diagnosed with schizophrenia. Learning Objectives Students will: Compare evidence-based treatment plans for adults versus children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia Analyze legal and ethical issues surrounding the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia Analyze the role of the PMHNP in addressing issues related to the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia To Prepare for this Assignment: Review the Learning Resources concerning early-onset schizophrenia. The Assignment (2 pages): Compare at least two evidence-based treatment plans for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia. Explain the legal and ethical issues involved with forcing children diagnosed with schizophrenia to take medication for the disorder and how a PMHNP may address those issues. Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Early-onset schizophrenia is a profoundly detrimental condition associated with long-term complications that are a variable in psychological, academic, physical, social, wellbeing as well as occupational operations (Harvey & Isner, 2020). The aim of this study is to compare the therapeutic choices of adults with schizophrenia with those prescribed to adolescents and children in a comparable manner. The influence of legal and ethical issues would be examined from the perspective of children’s therapeutic interventions. Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay.
Evidence-based treatment plans for adults versus children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia
The goal of managing schizophrenia is to address symptoms, improve coping reactions and avoid recurrences in order to bring the client to an integrated level in order to fit back to the group (Konsoula et al., 2019). The use of medicine is indicative of the early schizophrenia therapeutic choices; with the limitation being lifelong symptoms may continue (Stahl, 2014). This allows non-pharmacological therapies important, including psychotherapy, with documented evidence demonstrating that these strategies can be used in an attempt to achieve ultimate goals of treatment.
In priority interventions for EOS therapy in adults and adolescents, the accessibility of peculiar antipsychotics or second-generation is considered the medication of choice (Stahl, 2014). Perospirone, pipothiazine, sertindole and zotepine are some of the medicines named on the list, all of which are endorsed for food and drug administration for individuals 12 years of age and above (Touchette et al., 2019). The advantage of employing aberrant antipsychotics is that extrapyramidal impacts do not occur so highly. Nevertheless, the above drugs cause problems with gaining weight, sugar levels, and adjustments in cholesterol that may result to problems with heart problems within these categories of patients (Stahl, 2014).
In adults, children, and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia, measures have demonstrated to be helpful. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could even assist the adult patient, which might well be a personalized schizophrenia treatment and an additional strategy for the patient who does not want to consider taking medicine to control their illness (Frankenburg, 2018). The adolescent and child patient may gain from CBT to control a child’s psychosis, in which reducing thinking patterns involving delusions and hallucinations play a part. This type of CBT has been shown to make an individual less distressed by these symptoms whereby normal everyday life could be impaired.
Legal and ethical issues surrounding the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia
A thorough overview of their illness and treatment, which will provide risk and advantage, should discuss the social and development phase of the child (Frankenburg, 2018). Essentially, patients who are underage will have cohesive choices predicated on some adult insight and guidelines where they may have full recognition, hospital admissions, and overall treatment. The patient’s protection is of the greatest priority and therefore should be handled in a unique manner.
The role of the PMHNP in addressing issues related to the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia
A direct line of contact with all stakeholders concerned is essential for the PMHNP to establish. With special regard to the legal and ethical standards of clinical care for minor patients, the PMHNP shall carefully analyze the positives and negatives of implementing treatment interventions (Frankenburg, 2018). As a healthcare professional, with comprehensive deliberation given to the health of the whole family in overall and the client in particular, we must comply with the rules set out by legal agencies.
Early-onset schizophrenia could be a critical condition that can have major and adverse long-term effects. The use of drugs in the framework of CBT alongside psychotherapy will better handle such patients, but the client should be equipped with strict supervision such that optimal treatment services can be productively given. A mutual relationship between parents, children and psychologists should always occur. Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay.
Frankenburg, F. R. (2018, July 11). Schizophrenia Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Antipsychotic Pharmacotherapy, Other Pharmacotherapy.
Harvey, P. D., & Isner, E. C. (2020). Cognition, Social Cognition, and Functional Capacity in Early-Onset Schizophrenia. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 29(1), 171-182.
Konsoula, Zacharoula, John Patrick Jones, Philip Twumasi-Ankrah, Christian Heidbreder, and Azmi Nasser. “Methods for treating schizophrenia.” U.S. Patent Application 16/101,298, filed January 17, 2019.
Stahl, S. M. (2014). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
Touchette, D. R., Gor, D., Sharma, D., Chennault, R. R., Ng-Mak, D. S., Rajagopalan, K., & Ellingrod, V. (2019). Psychiatrist and Psychiatric Pharmacists Beliefs and Preferences for Atypical Antipsychotic Treatments in Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders. Journal of pharmacy practice, 0897190019854566. Early Onset Schizophrenia Essay.