Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.


M 2 – N 494 Assignment Assignment: Quantitative Research Write a fully developed and detailed APA essay addressing each of the following points/questions. There is no required word count; be sure to completely answer all the questions for each question in detail. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least one (1) source using citations in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay.


The cover page and reference page are required. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay. Conduct a literature search to select a quantitative research study related to the problem identified in Module 1 and conduct an initial critical appraisal. Respond to the overview questions for the critical appraisal of quantitative studies, including: DIAGNOSIS OR DIAGNOSTIC TEST In _children with suicidal ideation_(P) are/is _medication (I) compared with __Therapy and medications__(C) more accurate in diagnosing _major depression____(O)? Quantitative research is defined as a means of determining how an intervention should be implemented. The critical appraisal of quantitative research studies is discussed in detail. Evidence appraisal questions focus on reliability, validity and applicability of the studies to clinical practice and decision making. Specific appraisal questions related to case studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized control trials and systematic review quantitative research designs are identified. Bias, confounding results, effect size and confidence intervals are examined as issues influencing the quality of quantitative studies.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay. • Is this quantitative research report a case study, case control study, cohort study, randomized control trial or systematic review? • Where does the study fall in the hierarchy of evidence in terms of reliability and risk of bias? • Why was the study done? (Define the problem and purpose.) • Were the steps of the study clearly identified? • What was the sample size? • Are the measurements of major variables reliable and valid? Explain. • How were the data analyzed? • Were there any untoward events during the conduct of the study? • How do the results fit with previous research in the area? (This may be reflected in the literature review.)Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay. • What does this research mean to clinical practice? Additionally, be sure to include the rapid appraisal questions for the specific research design of the quantitative study that you have chosen. These can be found in Chapter 5 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015). This critical appraisal should be written in complete sentences (not just a numbered list) using APA format. Provide a reference for the article according to APA format and a copy of the article. Assignment Expectations: Length: Clearly and fully answer all questions; attach a copy of the article Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion. References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of one (1) scholarly source for the article is required for this assignment.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

According to Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt (2019), critical appraisal is the third step in the evidence-based practice or EBP process. Critical appraisal is made up of four phases namely (i) rapid critical appraisal to determine which studies to retain to address the clinical question, (ii) evaluating the retained studies individually, (iii) synthesis of the evidence found in the retained studies, and (iv) making recommendations for practice change. Critical appraisal is intended to be a skill of healthcare professionals such as psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNP). It helps a clinician quickly determine whether a study has been done reliably and if the results of the study are indeed valid. It is by doing this critical appraisal exercise that the clinician can decide to adopt the practice recommendations from the evidence in the study. Critical appraisal is an important tool for clinicians and practitioners because the body of new literature available is so huge that it may be difficult for a busy practitioner to keep up with all of them (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). This paper is about the critical appraisal of a cohort study (quantitative study) by Hammerton et al. (2016) on the risk of suicidal ideation in adolescents whose mothers suffer depression. Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Study Type, Position on Hierarchy of Evidence, and Purpose

The quantitative study by Hammerton et al. (2016) to be appraised in this paper is a cohort study. Cohort studies investigate causes of diseases or disease phenomena and the ‘cohort’ is the studied sample population that shares a common attribute or intervention (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). In this study, the cohort was a sample of n=14,062 mothers and their children drawn from the ALSPAC birth cohort in the United Kingdom. ALSPAC is the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The cohort study by Hammerton et al. (2016) falls at level IV in the hierarchy (pyramid) of evidence, just behind systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and nonrandomized controlled studies (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). The reason why the study was done or its purpose was to investigate the contribution of mediators of the association between maternal depression and offspring suicidality such as the nature of the parent-child relationship and presence of a psychiatric disorder in the offspring (Hammerton et al., 2016).Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Identification of the Steps of the Study, Sample Size, and Major Variable Measurement

The steps of this cohort study are clearly identified. These are sampling, methodology, data analysis and interpretation, and discussion. The sample size from the population cohort was n=14,062 live births who were then followed together with their mothers longitudinally. Sample characteristics of the mothers included that they were married, less likely to be another race other than Caucasian, owned a car, and lived in their own houses (Hammerton et al., 2016). The measurements of the major variables were both reliable and valid. Reliability of the measurements is drawn from the fact that the sample size was adequate and the validity of the findings is drawn from the fact that reliable structural equation modelling and regression analysis were used for data analysis.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Data Analysis, Untoward Events, and ‘Fit’ of the Results with Previous Research

Data analysis of the raw findings was conducted using strong nonparametric techniques that conferred validity to the findings. These included univariable logistic regression analyses to determine initial associations between variables. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate moderate or severe maternal depression symptom effects on child suicidality. A nonparametric bootstrapping approach was then used to compute indirect effects.  Wald χ2 tests were then used to determine if indirect effects within the same model differed in strength (Hammerton et al., 2016). During the longitudinal follow-up, the only untoward event that is noticeable from the study is the presence of missing data on suicidality of the children and potential mediators. The results of this study showed an association between offspring suicidality and presence in the mother of chronic-severe depression. Children of mothers with severe chronic depression showed an increased likelihood of developing suicidal ideation (Hammerton et al., 2016). These findings fit with previous research findings that have also found a positive relationship between parental suicidality and offspring suicidal ideation.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Meaning of this Research to Clinical Practice

The findings of this research are not only statistically significant, but also clinically significant. Clinical significance means that the findings will impact the way severe chronic depression is managed in mothers who have growing children so that the children do not end up with suicidal ideation themselves. This will be evidence-based practice (EBP) as it is supported by peer-reviewed literature. For instance, there may be a change in practice to routinely screening teenagers of mothers who have severe chronic depression for symptoms of depression themselves.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.

Answers to Rapid Critical Appraisal Questions for Cohort Studies

The results of the study by Hammerton et al. (2016) are valid because there was a representative and well-defined sample of study subjects. Follow-up was also sufficiently long enough and complete as the children and mothers were followed into their teen years from birth. Objective criteria were used and adjustment for confounding variables was made. The magnitude of the relationship between maternal depression and offspring suicidality found in the results is significant. The likelihood of this occurrence is demonstrated by the odds ratio (OR) which is 3.04 at 95% confidence interval. The study estimates were precise to the researchers’ expectations. As stated above, the results of this study will help in caring for the practitioner’s patients since the study subjects are similar to the mothers who present in the clinic with depression, be it postpartum depression or depression after the immediate postpartum period. The results will definitely be used to inform selection of appropriate therapy and also for counseling patients (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.


Quantitative studies are useful as sources of evidence for EBP in nursing practice. They hold a high place in the hierarchy of evidence and therefore merit consideration.Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research (a Cohort Study) in Nursing Essay.