Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay
NUR 641E WK5 DQ2 Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style. I chose Cardiomyopathy According to Kiko et al. (2017), cardiomyopathy is a cardiovascular system disease that makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood throughout the body. People with one of the various types of cardiomyopathy often suffer from heart failure. The main types of this disease are restrictive, dilated, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy affects the pumping ability of the main chamber of the heart. The left ventricle is seen to become enlarged and unable to pump blood from the heart (Mayala, 2019). Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay. This form of cardiomyopathy is more prominent in middle-age people, often resulting from a heart attack or coronary heart disease. On the other hand, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy involves a thickening of the heart muscle, especially the left ventricle. The thickened muscles make it difficult for the heart to work effectively. Unlike dilated cardiomyopathy, this form may develop at any age but is more severe in childhood. The disease is majorly congenital and has been linked to some genetic mutations. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is where the heart muscles lose their elasticity and become rigid. The heart, therefore, has difficulty dilating and filling with blood during heartbeats. This is the least prevalent form of cardiomyopathy, and while it may occur at any age, it is more common in older people. A disease may cause it within the body that affects the heart, such as hemochromatosis, or it may occur for no reason ((Mayala, 2019). Treatment for cardiomyopathy may involve medication. However, in severe cases could call for a heart transplant. The mode of treatment is dependent not only on the type of cardiomyopathy but also on the severity of the disease. In the early stages, cardiomyopathy may have no symptoms. However, as the condition advances, symptoms will appear including; coughing while lying down, breathlessness even when at rest, fluid build-up in the abdomen causing bloating, swelling of the legs, feet and ankles, fatigue, dizziness and fainting, rapid heartbeat, and chest pressure or discomfort (Mayala, 2019). Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay.
Cardiomyopathy is a condition that weakens heart muscles impairing the heat’s capacity to pump blood throughout the body. The condition is rare as it occurs in 1 in 500 people, but often goes unnoticed (Hamilton et al., 2020). There are various types of cardiomyopathy: dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic, among others. Although the medical condition has no known cure, various treatments are used to reduce its impact and manage the situation. Cardiomyopathy treatment ranges from one type to another, depending on the clinical presentation of the condition. Some of the interventions include lifestyle adjustments, non-surgical procedures, surgery, implanted devices like defibrillators and pacemakers, and medications (Hamilton et al., 2020). The treatment aims to reduce the complications of the condition, control the symptoms, manage the triggers of the disease, and prevent the condition from deteriorating. Amiodarone is a standard treatment for cardiomyopathy and is FDA-approved for the management and treatment of arrhythmias.
Mechanism of Action
Amiodarone can be administered intravenously for emergency treatment and orally in long-term interventions (Hamilton et al., 2020). The drug is ideal for patients with hemodynamic instability and congestive heart failure, which are cardiomyopathy symptoms. Amiodarone has effectively converted and maintained the sinus rhythm and controlled the ventricular rate hence restoring ventricular response. The medicine falls in the category of class III antiarrhythmics. The drug doses must be kept as low as efficiently possible to reduce the chances of drug toxicity. Although amiodarone has proved to be more efficient compared to propafenone and sotalol, the drug is flawed with multiple physiologic effects, including neurologic issues (Biancatelli et al., 2019). The mechanism of action involves barring the heart from repolarizing by blocking potassium rectifier currents hence preventing tachyarrhythmia. Amiodarone also decreases sinoatrial node automacity, among other unwanted mechanisms of action, causing unanticipated side effects like hypotension (Biancatelli et al., 2019). The safety of the drug for lactating mothers is yet to be established, hence not advisable.
Hints for Monitoring and Side Effects
Although amiodarone is a commonly used antiarrhythmic medication, it is accompanied by a tone of safety concerns. Intravenously administered amiodarone is often associated with low blood pressure and ventricular arrhythmia. Sustained drug use is tied to thyroid issues, with about 5.5% reporting hyperthyroidism and between 4% and 30% hypothyroidism (Florek, & Girzadas, 2020). At least 15% of patients using amiodarone reported disorders with liver functions. Between 5% and 15% of the people on the medication recorded pulmonary morbidity, initially symptomized by cough (Florek, & Girzadas, 2020).Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay . Eye problems are significant impacts observed in patients on amiodarone, with some experiencing blurred vision stemming from corneal micro-deposits. Some of the hints for monitoring include blood pressure levels, thyroid function, liver function, pulmonary morbidity, blurred vision, and chest radiographs (Hamilton et al., 2020). The adverse effects of amiodarone are due to cardiac toxicity due to the mechanisms of action of the drug.
Drug Interactions to Consider when Administering Amiodarone
Amid the myriad safety concerns, clinicians need to monitor patients for potential drug interactions and toxicity (Florek, & Girzadas, 2020). Amiodarone inhibits warfarin clearance owing to its therapeutic mechanism. As a result, physicians must monitor the international normalized ratio closely to ensure safety. Another drug clinicians must note when administered alongside amiodarone is digoxin (Florek, & Girzadas, 2020). The levels of the drug have demonstrated a significant increase hence the point of concern. Amiodarone interactions with digoxin and warfarin are the most clinically significant hence the need for monitoring. Other interactions to monitor include simvastatin, sildenafil, cyclosporine, and other antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay.
Biancatelli, R. M. C., Congedo, V., Calvosa, L., Ciacciarelli, M., Polidoro, A., & Iuliano, L. (2019). Adverse reactions of Amiodarone. Journal of geriatric cardiology: JGC, 16(7), 552.
Florek, J. B., & Girzadas, D. (2020). Amiodarone. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Hamilton, D., Nandkeolyar, S., Lan, H., Desai, P., Evans, J., Hauschild, C., … & Hilliard, A. (2020). Amiodarone: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, 1-10. Cardiomyopathy Treatment Essay.