Amoxicillin in Management of Diverticular Disease Paper
Topic 6 DQ 2 Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style. I chose Diverticular Disease Diverticular disease or diverticulitis (resulting from diverticulosis) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that cause significant morbidity. It is characterised by outpouchings of the mucous membrane lining the gastrointestinal tract (Hammer & McPhee, 2018). This is a short discussion about its pathophysiology and patient education. Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease The pathophysiology of diverticular disease revolves around a change in the normal flora of the gut and chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract (Strate & Morris, 2019). A rise in the levels of histamine which has been associated with gastrointestinal inflammation has been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. Microscopic inflammation has also been shown in patients with the disease. When weak areas in the wall of the colon are overwhelmed, this also leads to development of the bulges or outpouchings known as diverticulosis. Amoxicillin in Management of Diverticular Disease Paper. The other implicated factor in the pathogenesis of this disease is an alteration in the gut microbiota or normal flora. One of the causes for this is a lifestyle change in diet. The change in microbiota leads to inflammation of the gut mucosa and finally diverticulitis (Strate & Morris, 2019; Hammer & McPhee, 2018). Patient Education Related to Diverticular Disease Since there is a strong indication that diet plays a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease, most of the education is about a lifestyle change with regard to diet. These changes will include: • Engaging in regular physical exercise for not less than thirty minutes each time • Eating a regular high-fibre diet such as whole grain with enough fruits and vegetables • Stopping or avoiding the habit of cigarette smoking which is a risk factor • Taking enough water daily, since fibre requires water to expand and provide bulk (Hammer & McPhee, 2018).
Diverticular disease, also known as diverticulitis is a condition of the digestive system where one develops pouches on the mucosal membranes of the system. The condition occurs when extra pressure is exerted on the walls of the gastral intestinal tract (GIT) which causes tears that trigger the inflammation process (Jones, 2020). Management of the condition is mainly diet modification but during severe cases, antibiotics are used. Amoxicillin is one of the drugs used in the evidence-based treatment of diverticulitis. This paper explores the mechanism of action of amoxicillin, the side effects, and drug interactions. The information is important for the nurse to identify areas to be on the lookout while managing a client receiving amoxicillin treatment.
Mechanism of Action
The GIT is unsterile: it is colonized with microbes known as normal flora. Microbes play a vital role in the digestion of food ingested. However, they cause infections when there is a disturbance in the system that causes them to increase or decrease. Microbes can also cause infections when they find their way into the blood system which is sterile a situation that can easily lead to sepsis. Diverticulitis causes tears in the walls of the GIT thus exposing blood vessels to the microbes (Jones, 2020). Amoxicillin administered to patients with the condition prevents the occurrence of an infection that is likely to occur. The drug inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by attaching on penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (Akhavan & Vijhani, 2019). The binding causes autolytic effects that lenders the bacteria cell walls weak to survive in the system. Amoxicillin in Management of Diverticular Disease Paper.
Side Effects of Amoxicillin
Amoxicillin reduces the amount of normal flora in the digestive system. Consequently, the patient is likely to suffer from symptoms associated reduced number of essential microbes in the GIT as side effects of the drug (Akhavan & Vijhani, 2019). Therefore, the patient is likely to experience diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The drug also causes neutropenia and more so when used for a long time. Neutropenia causes excessive bleeding which may manifest in nose bleeding, heavier mentation, and red spots on the skin. Amoxicillin also affects the integumentary system where the patient presents with rashes, itchy redness, and soreness on the skin.
Drug Interaction of Amoxicillin
A drug interaction occurs when two more drugs affect the performance of each other either positively or negatively when administered together. Amoxicillin inactivates aminoglycosides in the system. Therefore, the therapeutic goal of aminoglycosides is not achieved. Probenecid inhibits renal clearance of the antibiotic thus increasing its serum concentration (Jin et l., 2018) The nurse should on the lookout when a patient is receiving both drugs to ensure adverse effects high doses of amoxicillin do not occur. The drug also reduces renal clearance of oxacillin thus increasing its half-life. The healthcare provider should reduce the dosage of oxacillin when being administered with amoxicillin to prevent the adverse effects of an overdose.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to manage server cases of diverticulitis. The drug works by inhibiting cell wall formation of the bacteria in the system thus preventing the occurrence of an infection. The drug, however, does not spare the useful microbes in the body. This characteristic exposes patients to pathologies associated with the decrease of microbes that are classified as side effects. Amoxicillin interacts with some drugs when administered together causing a reaction that may be harmful to the client (Jin et l., 2018). The nurse should know about all the drugs interacting with the antibiotic to prevent harmful effects. Amoxicillin in Management of Diverticular Disease Paper.
Akhavan, B. J., & Vijhani, P. (2019). Amoxicillin. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Jin, B. H., Yoo, B. W., Park, J., Kim, J. H., Lee, J. Y., Shin, J. S., & Park, M. S. (2018). Pharmacokinetic drug interaction and safety after coadministration of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and ilaprazole: a randomized, open-label, one-way crossover, two parallel sequences study. European journal of clinical pharmacology, 74(9), 1149-1157.
Jones, A. S. C. (2020). Diverticular disease and diverticulitis: causes, symptoms, and treatment. Evaluation, 14(47), 19. Amoxicillin in Management of Diverticular Disease Paper.