The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.


In late December 2019 an undiscovered pneumonia cluster has been found in Wuhan, China (Wu & McGoogan, 2020). A few days later, the novel causes of this mysterious pneumonia were identified as a corona virus (Bai et al., 2020).The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.


This causative virus was momentarily alluded to as severe acute respiratory syndrome 2, which was renamed corona-virus disease (COVID-19) 2019 by the World Health Organisation. The COVID-19 outbreak is already spreading across China and around the world. Corona viruses are an extremely stable RNA virus population, with a favourable envelope (World Health Organization 2020). Since March 2020, the Corona virus (COVID-19) became recognised and extended to many countries and territories as a global public health issue. With the spreading of COVID-19, it is important for communities to take measures to avoid more disclosure, raising the effects of the disease and promote preventive efforts (Zhou et al., 2020). Particular emphasis has been assigned in securing children and education facilities due to this epidemic.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

As of today, the novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had caused 1,529,975 human infections and 89,427 deaths worldwide, including more than 3000 infections among medical staff.  The possibility of contamination with COVID-19 will trigger severe psycho-social stress for healthcare staff. Unfortunately, several young medical personnel who were infected with COVID-19, whose cases seem to have recently deteriorated and died mildly at the early stage of the disease, have added more fears of the virus (Huang et al., 2020). The complexity of their jobs raises the risk of communicable diseases, like COVID-19, for healthcare employees.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. If large numbers fall sick during an epidemic crisis, the very elevated degree of burden on the healthcare sector is exacerbated. That is why it is so critical for patients to be easily detected and separated and has access to security equipment. Care staff devote a lot of time in near partnership with the individual performing high-risk practice (, 2020). Emergency department doctors and nurses are drenched with sweat and essential care nurses searching for safety gear have rapidly come to personify the courage and catastrophe of the corona virus pandemic. The complexity of their job puts healthcare staff at an elevated risk of contracting some communicable illness, like COVID-19. Health staffs are at the frontline of the epidemic response and are also susceptible to risks of disease-pathogen infection (in this situation, COVID-19).The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. The threats include illnesses, work long hours, psychological deprivation, tiredness, workplace burnout, loneliness and psychological distress (, 2020). Most contaminated COVID-19 patients come first to an emergency hospital (ED) unit. ED nurses are also the first healthcare workers to take charge of current infected patients. In addition, during the COVID-19 epidemic, there were many instances of exposure to the EDs. ED nurses experience hectic, volatile and constantly shifting conditions relative to nurses in other fields (, 2020).The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. As they contend with various illnesses, stressful experiences and immediate circumstances, they don’t have much time to rest and thus put themselves into significant stress and anxiety. As a consequence, ED nurses in many medical units are reported to suffer from much more burnout than other nurses. Burnout is a long-term effect of long-term exposure to such work pressures, as well as a response when someone can no longer tolerate the discomfort they experience (Kim & Choi, 2016). Health care staffs are also at risk because people with COVID-19 are not detected rapidly. Thus, this qualitative research will explore the experiences of Emergency Department (ED) nurses while treating patients with COVID-19 by conducting interviews and knowing their perceptions regarding the same in the Sydney metropolitan Hospital.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Research question

The qualitative paper will explore the experiences of the Emergency Department nurses while treating patients with COVID-19. Thus the research question is “What are the lived experiences of Emergency nurses while treating patients with Covid-19 in Sydney metropolitan Hospital?”The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.


Study design: This is a qualitative study that will be conducted using hermeneutic phenomenology approach to explore the experiences of Emergency Department (ED) nurses while treating patients with COVID-19 by conducting interviews and knowing their perceptions regarding the same in the Sydney metropolitan Hospital. Hermeneutic phenomenology involves gathering lived experience of a particular group (focus group) that enables profound understanding of the phenomenon. Hermeneutic phenomenology has been chosen for the study. This is because Hermeneutic phenomenology is regarding the nature of life or the perception of the human being. Throughout the perception that can be viewed as apparent across the experience, the focus point is to highlight information and even insignificant things to build context and a sense of awareness and understanding. This research will focus at creating an understanding of the lived experience of the ED nurses and thus, this method will help in understanding of their perception and gathering knowledge regarding the same.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Study population and eligibility criteria: A total of 12 Emergency nurses of Sydney metropolitan Hospital will be included in the study following Purposive sampling method. Thus, the focus group will be 12 ED nurses and they will be chosen based on their involvement in the ED. The chosen participants will be all registered ED nurses and have highest qualification. They must also be in charge of many COVID-19 patients. They all will be informed before conducting the research and informed consent will be taken from all the participants. Each of the ED nurses will be informed about the purpose of the study following which written consent will be taken. The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Sampling method: Purposive sampling method will be followed while selecting the participants. ED nurses have been chosen for the study because they are mostly involved in the patient care and they are more exposed to the infection. Purposive sampling (also referred to as judgement, selective or subjective sampling) is a sampling method that is focused on researchers’ judgement when choosing participants to engage in a study.  Purposive sampling is an unusual sampling process which happens when components chosen for the collection are identified by the researchers’ judgment.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. Purposive sampling is also assumed to produce a representative sample using a rational judgement that saves time and money.  Conversely, a purposive sampling method can prove successful if the purpose and objectives of the research design and only a small number of people can be used as primary data sources. Target sampling is one of the most inexpensive and time effective approaches used for sampling (Ames, Glenton & Lewin, 2019). Purposive sampling may be the only approach possible if a few primary data points are present and may lead to the analysis. This method may be productive to investigate anthropological circumstances in which an intuitive methodology should be utilized to explore significance (Palinkas et al., 2015). Thus, this sampling method will be used in the study to involve participants based on some criteria mentioned above.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Data collection: All the participants will be interviewed face-to-face in a separate room and their responses will be recorded with the help of a tape recorder. During the interview they will be asked open ended questions and also about the precautions they are undertaking to save themselves and their families.  Perhaps the most common and oldest method of data collection in qualitative researches is the face-to-face interview, often called an interview in person. It is also the safest method of data collection if one wants to eliminate non-response and optimize data efficiency. Face-to-face interviews are also used to inquire for details in initiatives that may be deemed very sensitive. While online and mobile surveys have become increasingly common, face-to-face interviews are still a traditional form of data collection.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. Face-to-face interviews assist for a more reliable screening process. There is no denying that a face-to-face interview can collect verbal and non-verbal ques, but this approach often allows the capturing of non-verbal ques, like body language, and can suggest a degree of discomfort with the queries. On the other side, it may also suggest a lack of interest for the subjects addressed in the interview. Face-to-face interviews will certainly catch the feelings and actions of the interviewee. Moreover, the research aims at exploring the perception of nurses regarding the management of COVID-19 patients, thus, the research will use face-to-face interviews to create an understanding of the perception of the ED nurses regarding the same.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Data Analysis: Their responses will be recorded and recording of each participant will be listened from the tape recorder and transcripts will be made that were further analysed to identify the key points they are addressing. Their responses will be recorded so that none of the points or responses stated by them are missed somehow. Also, transcripts will help keep a track of their responses and find the common themes they are addressing.

Study limitation: The sample size is very small for Generalizability of data and hence, the data findings cannot be applied to any other local population. The data findings cannot be applied to a wider population and thus, the research hypothesis may not be generalized.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.

Ethical considerations: Written consent will be taken from all the participants after informing them about the study. The study will also be approved by the institutional head. All the participants will be informed about the purpose of the study and they all must participate voluntarily. Voluntary participation ensures that individuals engage free of coercion in the analysis. Participants will be entitled to quit at any point without negative effects for their interest in prospective programmes or in the existing programme. They have the right to either participate or withdraw from the study. Thus, the focus group of 12 ED nurses will take part in the study voluntarily. All answers will be kept private and no questions will be posed that would trigger their psychological discomfort, anxiety and a decline in self-esteem. All of the responses will be kept confidential. The participants will be asked relevant questions and no other sensitive inquiries will be asked that could impede or harm their privacy. They will be given an introductory session on the purpose and rationale behind conducting this study. They will only be involved when they will show interest and will agree to participate in this study. The head of the organization will also be informed and permission will be obtained from him about the research to be performed in the hospital prior to their participation in the process.

Demonstrating rigor in qualitative experiments is important to ensuring that study results of “integrity” have an effect on practice, policy or both. Reliable analysis technique usually includes questioning and/or studying individuals who are fundamental to the research subject (Ghafouri & Ofoghi, 2016). The data generated are typically (though not always) in the form of a text that details what the interviewees said and/or did. The results are then interpreted, sometimes by the individual questioned or examined, adding to the possibility of subjectivity and prejudice. Qualitative experiments have also been questioned for lack of rigor, clarity, rationale for the compilation of data and the forms of research used. However, this research will be free of any bias or confounding factors (Hadi & Closs, 2016).The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay. The research will use Hermeneutic phenomenology approach and thus, will take into account the perception of the participants and their beliefs, thus, enabling a deeper understanding of the issue.  Also, the study will explain a natural phenomenon and will lead to a hypothesis based on the research area. The data collection process that will be used here will serve as authentic since it involves primary data collected from the ED nurses, who will be able to provide relevant data on this study. The methodology chosen to conduct this study is also rigorous and will provide relevant research findings.The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay.