Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.

Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.


The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) developed by Dorothea Orem and published in 1971 is one of the most influential and thoroughly utilized theories in nursing. The idea stemmed from research conducted when Orem was tasked by the U. S. Department of Health insurance and Welfare (HEW) to boost nurse training. Through this project Orem investigated in what circumstances nurses were needed to provide care. The goal was to escort selecting educational material found in educating nurses predicated on the needs of the patient. After going out of HEW, Orem persisted her work developing in the idea of self-care at Catholic University or college of America. In 1971, Orem published Nursing: Concepts of Practice. The idea “delineates when patients cannot care for themselves, despite having the help of members of the family” (Johnson & Webber, 2010). This inability for self-care develops a demand for treatment that can be filled with a nurse, similar to the supply and demand theory in economics. The purpose of the SCDNT was to lay a base to direct nursing knowledge (education) and guidance for the development of nursing practice.Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.


SCDNT “is the expansion of [Virginia] Henderson’s concept of nursing and appears to add a medical perspective” (Hanucharurnkul, 1989). Orem, like Henderson is known as a needs based theorist. The overall theory is derived from three integral ideas: theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, and theory of nursing systems. SCDNT says that self-care is therapeutic and required for development and development. It also details the elements that are required in order for a person to obtain achieved an even of self attention such as, basic fitness factors and home attention requisites.Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.

If at any point in the health continuum a person is unable to provide for either their basic fitness factor or requisites a personal care deficit is established. Some of these deficits can be stuffed by family or cultural support elements. However, when the self applied care deficit can’t be filled credited to health issues or some other factor it may be necessary to seek a relationship with someone specifically trained to satisfy these deficits. The partnership that is established between the patient and the nurse specifically defined and identified by the medical company. Finally, the SCDNT outlines the medical systems that exist predicated on the amount of the personal attention deficit of the individual. For example, an individual with severe brain stress may necessitate a wholly compensatory system where in fact the nurse functions all self health care activities for the individual. Yet, a person with recently diagnosed hypertension may necessitate a simple supportive-educational system which is a very brief come across (Johnson & Webber, 2010).

However, with the breadth of the individual condition it is difficult to acquire one theory that includes all medical phenomena. Many nursing theories are being used along other ideas with similar focus for a far more comprehensive practical application. Orem’s SCDNT has been used in conjunction with Roy’s Adaptation Model. Roy’s model employs the same four concepts of medical. The differences include “Roy’s definition of person includes the biopsychosocial aspect as well as that of a living adaptive systemThe environment plays a more significant role in Roy’s models. It’s the world within and around the person that can promote the individual to make adaptive replies” (Adam, 1992). This model matches the Orem model in that there isn’t only a need for care, but a personal response to the care so long as facilitates the recovery of the individual to provide do it yourself health care. Many similarities have also been found between Orem’s model and Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment. While Ruler is known as an connection theorist and her goal attainment theory concentrates generally on the nurse-patient romantic relationship and relationships toward a typical goal to satisfy the individual’s role in contemporary society versus self-care. “Orem’s and King’s point of view of the four components of medical metaparadigm (person, health, environment and nursing) as well as how a person can be helped through nursing as mirrored in the idea of nursing system and the idea of goal attainment” have many similarities and their dissimilarities are often complementary (Hanucharurnkul, 1989).

Overall, the theory is clear and concise. It’s been used extensively to steer nursing practice. According to Johnson and Webber, Orem’s book Nursing: Concepts of Practice has been revised five times with recent upgrade in 2001. The theory itself is also constantly review and kept up to date. “Orem’s conceptual model can be used to guide nursing practice more than other conceptual models in america” (Hanucharurnkul, 1989). The idea in addition has been used as the foundation for modern medical theorists.

Criterion 2 – Limitations are steady with nursing practice

Orem’s SCDNT very carefully delineates how a nurse can assist others to be able to satisfy a self attention deficit. Orem identifies the five ways of helping as: behaving for and doing for others, guiding others, helping another, providing and environment promoting personal development with regards to meet future requirements, and instructing another (Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, 2010). Overall, these areas in which nurses help encompass the principal functions within the limitations of nursing good care. Through these five regions of helping the nurse can function in a variety of settings like the clinic, nursing home, rehabilitation center, university, or even in the patients home.

Additionally, all groups of care and attention recipients are encompasses by the theory. The care deficit means that at each developmental level there is certainly some proven self-care baseline. Under SCDNT the idea of nursing systems delineates what sort of patient’s deficit can be satisfied. You will find three major nursing systems discussed in the idea and include all relevant good care recipients. Within the idea the role on the nurse changes based on the nursing system executed for the care recipient.

Once a care and attention recipient falls beyond the guidelines of the necessity for care predicated on a specific care and attention deficit and following a specified nursing the idea has more challenging time identifying treatment needs. Critics of SCDNT have stated that “the model may indeed make a substantial and respected difference in the lives of men and women whose self treatment talents are curtailed scheduled to severe or chronic conditions, but may well not make the same difference boosting reduction and promoting well-being” (Hartweg, 1990). Following this rationale the role of the nurse as educator and advocate may have difficulty slipping under the home health care deficit model. Health campaign activities do indeed fall season within Orem’s model. Hartweg cites numerous situations where health campaign falls straight within major components of the models current framework including, therapeutic personal good care demand and common self attention requisites. Exercise for health advertising was cited by the article for example of your health campaign activity that’s not only restorative for growth and development as well as widespread self care requisite.Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.

Criterion 3 – Vocabulary is understandable and includes nominal jargon

The SCDNT was meticulously developed over a period spanning more than 30 years. The published theory is extensive. The overall theory is quite understandable and the terminology specific to the idea (jargon) is often described with minimal or uncomplicated definitions. The most complex terminology within the theory encompass the agent and firm relationship established between your care recipient and the nurse. For instance, the terms reliant attention agent and reliant care agency require a more in-depth description than the word partially compensatory medical system or basic fitness factors, both which are essentially self explanatory.

Criterion 4 – Major concepts are identified and defined

The major the different parts of Orem’s theory are explicitly organized and detailed. The major the different parts of the idea are threefold the theory of self-care, the theory of self-care deficit, and the theory of nursing systems. Within each of the major components are key concepts and explanations specific compared to that component. Once every one of the key principles are defined within the platform of their major element a correlation is manufactured regarding how all the components interrelated to build and comprehensive medical theory.

The universal ideas that are contained in most nursing theories are also covered in Orem’s SCDNT. Orem carefully defines these universal concepts: care recipient (person), the role of the nursing, this is of health, and the role of the environment in the framework of the theory specific idea of self care. The theory also defines whenever a person would have to change or change self treatment. This deviation from normal personal care activities occurs whenever a person has an illness, an injury, or a dynamic disease process. These deviations often arise in a self good care deficit.

The theory of nursing systems is the major component of SCDNT that identifies in detail how the patient’s needs are fulfilled. It also identifies the scope of nursing with respect to health care situations. This includes a broad summary of the role of nurse and health care device and then details very specific jobs of the nurse and care and attention recipient as well. All the explanations are correlated to how the nurse and the care receiver will meet the specified self treatment deficit.

Criterion 5 – Concepts promote the forming of propositions

Propositions are easily created from the center ideas within the SCDNT. The idea of self health care implicitly states the proposition that an individual is able to provide look after oneself. Similarly, the idea of self-care deficit signifies the proposition that a nurse will fill a self treatment deficit when the average person struggles to do so. Within the nursing systems lies the proposition that reputable patients have self care and attention deficits for assembly self health care requisites. At each main strategy under the framework of SCDNT a multitude of propositions can be proven. These propositions help build the integral marriage among the principles within the model.

Criterion 6 – Factors and assumptions help you understand and interpret propositions

As with all nursing theories, there can be an established set of assumptions that are thought as they connect with the idea. The assumptions defined in the SCDNT are essential to the knowledge of the idea at a very macro level. The inner and external variables are important to the precise concepts within the idea. For example, the assumption that people require constant and self directed care for health, development and well-being is paramount to understanding all the major theoretical aspects. It is would be impossible to comprehend the necessity for self good care, the presence of the self good care deficit and a medical system that could fill the particular deficit of care and attention receiver if the assumption had not been made that humans require continuous health care and maintenance.

The variables within the model help identify and promote knowledge of the major ideas. The varying ‘self care requisites’ provides a deeper understanding, or a micro level, of precisely what a self care and attention deficit might be. The macro theory here would be that the nurse would complete the self health care deficit as it develops, but in order to learn there is a deficit one must know very well what self worry requisites are present at varying developmental stages. When a person was unaware that bathing was a self applied care requisite, then your person would be similarly unaware of a deficit if indeed they were unable to bathe themselves.Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.

Criterion 7 – Theoretical knowledge helps clarify and predict phenomena

The phenomenon which expresses “humans have varying talents to care for themselves during disorder” (Johnson & Webber, 2010) is described at length within the framework of the SCDNT. The SCDNT not only points out the phenomenon, but the theory of nursing systems is predictive of the care receiver’s outcome with regards to their potential to resume self applied care. While this is one of the key phenomena discussed by Orem’s theory there are numerous instances in which phenomenon can be discussed through request of the theory.

Utilizing a practical application of the model explaining and predicting phenomena is always to explore the sensation that exercise reduces cholesterol levels in the body and therefore reduces the risk of coronary attack. Consider Patient A, a non-smoker, healthy weight individual who consumes a reasonably well-balanced diet but will not exercise regularly. The explanation for not performing exercises is that he is a healthy weight and should not want to exercise. Beneath the SCDNT Patient A has a home care deficit by not performing exercises because he is unacquainted with his cholesterol rate. The nurse can assist the patient through the medical agency relationship interpret the cholesterol level and offer education on the relationship between cholesterol and the chance of cardiovascular disease as well as exercise and the reduction in cholesterol. Through this simple example the trend was discussed in the framework of the SCDNT and the outcome to the individual can be expected.

Criterion 8 – Theoretical knowledge influences nursing practice

SCDNT “has been suggested as a conceptual model for nursing practice. Because the immediate goal of your conceptual model is to guide practice, evaluation of the model’s usefulness in practice is a required and important step. Although a model may be potentially useful in a particular and well-defined environment, its ultimate usefulness is determined by whether nurses have the ability to adapt it to their adjustments” (Wagnild, Rodriguez & Pritchett, 1987). In a report conducted by Wagnild, et al of graduates from universities which instruct the SCDNT as the principal model of education it was found that most these graduates sustained using the model as the principal basis of their practice. However, it was mentioned that in almost all of the respondents explained that the healthcare setting where they functioned was conducive to self attention. Almost all study respondents that were not actively using the theory in practice stated 1 of 2 main reasons these were not using the theory; the healthcare setting was not conducive to self care or they did not have time to utilize the theory in practice. It was concluded by the analysis that the SCDNT is versatile to a multitude of healthcare practice settings.

Furthermore, it’s been suggested that there surely is a disparity between your theoretical nurse practice models, nursing medical diagnosis, and the medical process. “The set of diagnoses accepted for trials and refinement by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Relationship (NANDA) has been developed inductively from nurses’ particular experiences and perceptions, no common theoretical bottom is distributed by both. This theoretical discrepancy offers the possibility for a lack of fit between the two conceptual constructions” (Jenny, 1991). A report conducted that tasked nursing students to assign a specific nursing identification to each self attention requisite produced a positive correlation between medical diagnoses and the self applied care requisites. Most of the medical diagnoses were designated properly. Furthermore, the students participating in the study indicated a very advanced of satisfaction with the exercise as useful learning tool. Those examination which were inappropriately given underscored the necessity for the more detailed coaching of the meaning of the diagnosis or a far more in-depth understanding of the self treatment boundaries defined in Orem’s SCDNT (Jenny, 1991).

Finally, SCDNT has been used as a basis for evidence-based practice. “Evidence-based nursing practice is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of SCDNT-guided, research established information in making decisions about care and attention delivery” (Fawcett, 2003) to the health care recipient. At the moment, strong empirical data is just not available to support evidence-based practice that is rooted in the SCDNT. More concrete and comprehensive research is needed and encouraged by followers of Orem’s model. Corresponding to Spearman, Duldt, and Brown (1993), a report of the literature on Orem’s theory produced 31 empirical studies. Of the 31 studies, 87 percent utilised ‘insufficient use’ or ‘nominal use’ of the SCDNT theory. “Society [has mandated] that disciplines and occupations providing health care generate another, appropriate and reliable knowledge basic to steer their practice” (Spearman, et al 1993).Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.


As one of the leading nursing theories available today, Orem’s SCDNT is generally trained as a medical practice model to nursing students and is employed practically within healthcare settings. It’s been decided to be adjustable to a multitude of care settings as well as appropriate to a wide variety attention recipients. The model has been updated numerous times and has been used as a system for the development of new ideas in nursing. The one area that is missing is that of a completely explored body of empirical information to provide the SCDNT a solid groundwork for evidenced established medical practice. As the research of nursing evolves the requirement for adequate trials of theories can be the standard.Self Attention Deficit Theory of Nursing Essay.