Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.


Systematic Reviews: Searching and Analysis of the Literature
Nurses prepared at the doctoral level can serve as leaders in applying research to nursing practice. How do you think literature reviews could aid in this process? Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Systematic reviews involve an in-depth examination of the research literature on a specific topic. To do this successfully, you must be able to employ good search techniques, critique a research article (which requires a foundational understanding of research designs), and understand levels of evidence. This week, you will consider systematic reviews and their usefulness for promoting evidence-based nursing practice. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.


Learning Objectives
Students will:
Employ basic and advanced search techniques to locate research literature on a practice problem
Critically appraise research literature related to a nursing treatment or prevention intervention (include an article presenting a systematic review) Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Learning Resources
Required Media
Walden Library Webinars:
Conducting a Literature Search on a Clinical Research Question
Evidence-Based Health Research
Introduction to Health Science Research
Medical Research: Finding Reviews
Medical Research: Finding Studies by Type
Medical Research: Health Policies and Legal Cases

Assignment Literature Review Matrix
This Assignment expands upon the work you have been conducting for this week’s Discussion (see attachment). For this Assignment (which you will start this week, and submit by the end of Week 7), you will conduct a search for literature on your selected practice problem. A Literature Review Matrix template will be used to identify gaps in the literature. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

To prepare:
Consider the practice problem you addressed in this week’s Discussion (see attachment). Review the guidelines in the Literature Review Matrix, included in the Learning Resources. Formulate a research question around your issue as indicated in Part I. Then complete Part II of the Matrix, identifying the resources you will use, search terms and criteria, and Boolean search strings. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Using the Walden Library, locate 10 articles related to your research question. At least one article must be a systematic review. All of the articles should be primary sources. NOTE: If appropriate, you may use the four articles you reviewed for this week’s Discussion (see reference page on attachment).
Review Part III of the Literature Review Matrix and notice which middle range theories were used most frequently in the articles you reviewed.
Consider the appropriate use of the theoretical frameworks in each article. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Review the information on empiricism presented in Chapter 1 of Theoretical Basis for Nursing and Chapter 6 in The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence as you consider your response to Part IV.
By Day 7 of Week 7
Complete Part I and Part II of the Literature Review Matrix template.
Complete Part III of the Literature Review Matrix.
In your analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature, note the appropriate use of the theoretical frameworks.
Complete Part IV addressing the influence of empiricism on quantitative methodology. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Required Readings
Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
Chapter 3, \”Introduction to Quantitative Research\”
Chapter 3 provides an overview of quantitative research, the concepts associated with this type of research, and different quantitative research designs. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Chapter 4, \”Introduction to Qualitative Research\”
Chapter 4 describes the philosophy of qualitative research and provides examples of how it is used in nursing research. Understanding the basic principles of quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to effectively critique research literature.
Chapter 7, \”Review of Relevant Literature\”
Chapter 7 examines the process of preparing for a literature review to support research efforts.
Chapter 13, \”Outcomes Research\”
Moran, K., Burson, R., & Conrad, D. (2020). The doctor of nursing practice scholarly project: A framework for success (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 6, \”Developing the DNP Project\”

Armola, R., Bourgault, A., Halm, M., Board, R., Bucher, L., Harrington, L., & … Medina, J. (2009). AACN levels of evidence: What\’s new? Critical Care Nurse, 29(4), 70-73. doi:10.4037/ccn2009969
This article provides a hierarchical evidence rating system which can be used as a guide to determine the quality and level of evidence presented in different types of research studies. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Elkins, M. Y. (2010). Using PICO and the brief report to answer clinical questions. Nursing, 40(4), 59-60. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000369871.07714.39
The article explains how to use the PICO method to develop clinical questions.
Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B., Stillwell, S., & Williamson, K. (2010). Critical appraisal of the evidence: Part I an introduction to gathering, evaluating, and recording the evidence… fifth in a series. American Journal of Nursing, 110(7), 47–52. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000383935.22721.9c
This article discusses the process of rapid critical analysis of research and literature through the categorization of studies and utilization of an evaluation table. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B., Stillwell, S., & Williamson, K. (2010). Critical appraisal of the evidence: Part III the process of synthesis: Seeing similarities and differences across the body of evidence. American Journal of Nursing, 110(11), 43-51. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000390523.99066.b5
This article continues the discussion of critical analysis of evidence and concludes with how nurses can then make decisions based on a synthesis of the findings. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
Duke University Medical Center Library. (2009). Evidence-based clinical practice resources: Hierarchy of evidence-based medicine (EBM) resources. Retrieved from
Duke University provides this visual representation of levels of evidence.
University of Illinois at Chicago. (n.d.) Evidence-based practice in the health sciences: Levels of evidence. Retrieved from
This web-based tutorial provides an overview of evidence-based practice and includes a section on developing practice questions for evidence-based projects.
Evidence-Based Nursing. (n.d.) Retrieved from
This website surveys a wide range of international clinical journals and includes only those research articles that demonstrate high quality and validity. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library (n.d.). Finding evidence in PubMed. Retrieved from
The Joanna Briggs Institute (n.d.). Retrieved from
This international organization was created by the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Adelaide in South Australia and provides members with access to systematic reviews and other research efforts.
Walden University. (2017). Library webinar archives: Nursing. Retrieved from

Optional Resources
Boss, C., & Wurmser, T. A. (2009). Searching for evidence: Mission-critical tips. Nursing Management, 40(9), 12. doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000360766.29235.8e
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research: Part 1: Quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing (BJN), 16(11), 658–663.
This article provides strategies for critiquing quantitative research and includes definitions of frequently used research terms.
Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: A step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing (BJN), 17(1), 38–43. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.
This article details an approach for nurses to use when analyzing research, synthesizing data, and writing and reporting research findings.
Dale, J. C. (2005). Critiquing research for use in practice. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 19(3), 183–186. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2005.02.004
Engle, M., Blumethal, A., & Cosgrave, T. (2010). How to prepare an annotated bibliography. Cornell University Library Olin & Uris Libraries: Ask a Librarian. Retrieved from
Evans, D. (2003). Hierarchy of evidence: A framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12(1), 77–84. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00662.x
Hanson, D., Hoss, B. L., & Wsorick, B. (2008). Evaluating the evidence: Guidelines. AORN Journal, 88(2), 188–196.
Holopainen, A., Hakulinen-Viitanen, T., & Tossavainen, K. (2008). Systematic review – A method for nursing research. Nurse Researcher, 16(1), 72–83.
Kleinpell, R. M., Gawlinski, A., & Burns, S. M. (2006). Searching and critiquing literature essential for acute care NPs. Nurse Practioner, 31(8), 12–13.
Parahoo, K., McCaughan, E., Noyes, J., & McDonough, S. (2010). The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008529
This systematic review provides results of psychosocial theories utilized in assisting men with prostate cancer.
Sherrod, R. A., Ford, C., & Oliver, J. (2010). Using data from the Internet to teach ethical principles for critiquing research studies. Nurse Educator, 35(1), 17–1 9. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e3181c41f8d
Tatano-Beck, C. (2009). Critiquing qualitative research. AORN Journal, 90(4), 543. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2008.12.023
Traynor, M. (2009). Humanism and its critiques in nursing research literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(7), 1560–1567.
Consortium Library University of Alaska Anchorage (2011). Nursing research guide. Retrieved from
The Writing Center (2007). Literature reviews. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from

Strengths or Weaknesses of Selected Theoretical Framework and Practice Problem

The focus in week 5 discussion was the appropriateness of fundamentals of caring as the framework for developing practices that aid in end-of-life pain. Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Pain concerning patients who are suffering from end of life disease or patients in need of palliative care is the focus of the practice problem chosen. For my research I would like to focus on the need for the application of compassionate care and its impact on an individual who at the end-of-life. Dying patients often experience various uncomfortable symptoms during the final phase of life in hospitals. Physical pain is a common symptom in dying patients and is recognized as a substantial burden for cancer patients (Montgomery et. al., 2017). Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience and is known to be an unmet palliative care need of older people (Steindalet. al., 2011). Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Many palliative care goals and principles are difficult to achieve in practice. Therefore, one of the most difficult challenges is to transfer the hospice model of care into mainstream hospital services (McConnell et. al., 2013).The Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) for the Dying Patient has been proposed as a tool to meet this challenge. The LCP is an example of a multi-disciplinary integrated care pathway (ICP), so the wider literature on ICPs will help illuminate the factors affecting the success of the LCP. (McConnell et. al., 2013).ICPs are plans for patient care “that embed guidelines, protocols and locally agreed, evidence-based, patient-centered, best practice, into everyday use for the individual patient” (McConnell et. al., 2013). Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.

Levels of evidence

The articlesselected were appraised by utilizing the ACCN’s new evidence leveling classification system(Armola et al., 2009).

“End-of-life care pathways for improving outcomes in caring for the dying” by (Chan, Webster &Bowers, 2016).Level C.

“Supporting carers to manage pain medication in cancer patients at the end of life: A feasibility trial” (Latter et. al., 2018).Level C

“Systematic Realist Review of Key Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation and Sustainability of the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient” (McConnell et. al., 2013).Level C

“Hypnosis for Symptom Control in Cancer Patients at the End-of-Life: A Systematic Review” (Montgomery et. al., 2017).Level C

Level of Evidence Prevalence

Level C is the most prevalent of the chosen articles. Levels or hierarchies are utilized to improve patient outcomes, evaluate and grade evidence. Level C encompasses the findings from studies which consist of a myriad of research designs. Level C research is based on either experimental or nonexperimental designs (Peterson et. al., 2014). Searching and Analysis of the Literature Essay.