Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
The environment (both home and physical) has a significant influence on health, as you saw in the readings and media presentations for this week. You also read about the ramifications of global climate change on health. For the purpose of this Assignment, consider the implications of global climate change on health now and in the future. For this Assignment, review the following: AWE Checklist (Level 4000) Walden paper template (no abstract or running head required) The Week 5 Assignment Rubric for additional instruction and guidance By Day 7 of Week 5 Write a 3- to 5-page paper that addresses the following: Describe two health care concerns related to global climate change. Topics could include increased exposure to vectors that transmit Zika, West Nile virus, or malaria; respiratory problems; food distribution problems due to drought or lack of water; or heat-related illness. Compare concerns in the United States related to these topics with one developed and one developing country. Describe health promotion/health protection strategies a nurse could implement. Support your ideas with references from the professional nursing literature.
Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health
Global Climate Change
Global climate change is the average long-term changes over the whole world including the effects of Earth’s warming, changes in precipitation and warming temperatures. Human beings are increasingly affecting the earth’s temperature and the climate by farming livestock, burning fossil fuels as well as cutting down forests (Khairullina et al, 21019). The activities done by human beings lead on earth lead to enormous amounts of the greenhouse gases to atmosphere thus increasing global warming and greenhouse effect. Recent reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) recounted that climate change causes more than 150,000 deaths yearly.Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Increased Exposure to Vectors that Transmit Zika in Relation to Global Climate Change
Zika is a vector borne disease primarily spread to humans by the Aedes Aegyptus mosquitoes. Increase in climate instability has led to the high emergence of the infections caused by mosquitoes including chikungunya, zika and dengue fever. Zika has a geographical-restricted distribution caused by the climate effects on the ticks and insects (Ryan et al, 2019). However, zika is spreading to other geographical areas due to the changes in global climate. The zika virus has recently turned into a public health crisis due to its rapid rise causing several infections in America.
Heavy rains and warm temperatures caused by global climate change have led to the thriving of the mosquitoes carrying Zika. The heavy rains translate to stagnant water which is a good breeding habitat for mosquitoes (Ryan et al, 2019). The recentoutbreak of zika in Brazil was caused by the Elnino that has strong influence in the region. However, the northeast part of Brazil dries out during Elnino which could seem to be counterintuitive but it is also prime time for the breeding of mosquitoes. The hightemperatures in the northeastern part of Brazilare ingredients to driving the virus outbreak.Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Food Distribution Problems Due to Drought or Lack of Water in Relation to Global Climate Change
Food security and water availability are the key challenges under change of global climate since both are vulnerable to the continuously climatic pattern changes. Increase in temperature due to changes in global temperatures are predicted to cause significant reduction of fresh water resources. In addition, agricultural yield in the globe is expected to reduce substantially by the end of the 21st century (Ali et al, 2017). Most of fresh water resources have been depleted causing reduction in the global agricultural production. Consequently, the escalation in the world population have led to high demand of water and food.
Global climate change has contributed to prominent change impacts including increases in the magnitude of floods, emergence of deserts as well as deserts. In addition, the semi-arid and arid areas have globally been hit by food shortages as well as manifold increase in the inflation of food. With the fast population and several mouths to feed, the growing desire of the population of middle class for dairy and meat products, the demand for food globally is predicted to increases by between 64 to about 98 percent (Ali et al, 2017). However, the quality of food produced and supplied has been jeopardized by the extreme weather, drought, and increased levels of the sea level as well as high temperatures. Consequently, the production of legumes and vegetable is predicted to be affected by the production of the greenhouse emissions. The production of legumes and vegetables is predicted to reduce by more than 35% by the year 2100 as a result of increased salinity, ozone as well as water scarcity.Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Increased Exposure to Vectors that Transmit Zika in United States vs United Kingdom and Ethiopia
Zika in the United States
Currently, the United States is not experiencing any transmission of zika including Texas and Florida that had reported a local transmission of the virus between 2016 and 2017. However, the USA government has set goals that provide a framework to overarch for the international community (Ryan et al, 2019). The USG has formed a zika response team that has set goals including; providing technical assistance to the affected countries, conducting unified communication and coordination, and minimizing the impact on communities affected by the zika virus.
Zika in UK
The vector transmitting zika does not exist in the UK hence all the positive cases found in the country are as a result of travelling to the Zika prone areas. There were found two cases with antibody evidence and other two cases with virus detected in 2018 (Ryan et al, 2019). Pregnant women in the UK are provided with a primary care guidance that advises pregnant women not to travel to reduce the risk of contracting the zika virus. However, no ban is imposed on patients who come back to the country ill since they do not impose any health risk to the wider population. Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Zika in Ethiopia
In July 2019, Ethiopia was declared a risk area for the transmission of the zika virus. However, the country is not experiencing any case of the zika virus outbreak. The health department in Ethiopia has not document credible information about the zika virus, hence there might be a possibility of delays in detecting and reporting cases (Ryan et al, 2019). The pregnant women in Ethiopia are required to seek counselling from a healthcare worker to avoid the complications that come with the zika virus on pregnant women.
Health Promotion and Health Protection Strategies a Nurse Could Implement
Nurses are the best performing healthcare professionals to promote the health of populations and individuals by enhancing the quality of life through community assessment. Therefore, nurses evaluate and implement programs that help in identifying resources, community needs as well as reducing premature deaths. Since zika virus has no cure or vaccine, the nurses can strategize on advising the population about the best form of prevention of repelling and avoiding mosquitoes. In addition, the nurses should guide the patients and communities ion the use of insect repellants that contain DEET and OLE to protect them from getting mosquito bites(Drayton-Brooks et al, 2017). In addition, nurses should advise the patients to wear clothes treated with a repellants as well as wearing long-sleeved clothes and long trousers to cover their vulnerable and exposed skin. Lastly, the nurses should advise the pregnant women to avoid travelling to zika virus prone areas. However, if a pregnant woman has to travel, they must book an appointment at the passport health clinic prior travelling.Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Furthermore, nurses can advise individuals and populations about the strategies to minimize the impact of climate change on food security. First, the nurses should guide the population on how to implement adaptation methods that reduce loss risk emanating from the extreme weather conditions (Drayton-Brooks et al, 2017). In addition, the community should prioritize on risk reduction through diversifying the crop management approach. The communities should also focus on good agricultural practices that will help them to increase their source of income. Lastly, individuals and populations should expand their capacity in disease modeling, index insurance systems as well as remote weather stations.Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay
Ali, S., Liu, Y., Ishaq, M., Shah, T., Ilyas, A., & Din, I. U. (2017). Climate change and it’s on the yield of major food crops: Evidence from Pakistan. Foods, 6(6), 39.
Drayton-Brooks, S. M., Gray, P. A., Turner, N. P., & Newland, J. A. (2017). Building education training capacity in nurse practitioner programs. Journal of Nursing, 33(6), 422-428.
Khairullina, E. R., Bogdanova, V. I., Slepneva, E. V., Nizamutdinova, G. F., Fatkhullina, L. R., Kovalenko, Y. A., & Skutelnik, O. A. (2019). Global climate change: Cyclical nature natural and permanent nature of man-made processes. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences 13(2), 2311-2316.
Ryan, S. J., Carlson, C. J., Mordecai, E. A., & Johnson, L. R. (2019). Global expansion and redistribution of Aedes-borne virus transmission risk with climate change. Neglected tropical diseases, 13(3), e0007213. Role of the Nurse in Public and Global Health Essay