Research Problem and Research Questions

Research Problem and Research Questions

Write an essay outlining the steps of conducting a qualitative research. Describe what a Research Problem and Research Question/s are, addressing how and why they are identified and developed. Describe the Review of Literature, addressing why and how it is done. Explain what design means in research. Describe how the sample is selected in research and the significance of sample size. Explain data collection for Qualitative Research, addressing various tools that may be utilized. Explain data analysis in Qualitative Research, addressing how it may be done/what tools may be used. Explain reporting the results of a qualitative study, addressing how it may be done and the significance of reporting results. Assignment 2: Begin working on an abstract based on your scholarly project \”In women with Major Depression, How does a daily self-help tool compared to medication management alone affect the patient’s mood?\” and your review of literature from Modules 2 and 5 by following these instructions: Prepare an abstract that will describe your DNP project as if it was complete and you were submitting your abstract for peer review for a poster/paper presentation to a professional audience. Complete the sample abstract submission materials for a national conference as if you were going to submit your scholarly work. Follow the Southern Nursing Research Society (SNRS) Abstract Submissions packet as guidelines found at: Problem and Research Questions


The research problem refers to a specific area of concern, knowledge gap, or specific issue that needs to be addressed using the research. The first step involved identifying a broad problem area to identify a gap that the intended research will fill and then review the key factors involved in the identified problem area (Aspers & Corte, 2019). The next step involves learning more about the research problem to identify the exact aspect that will be addressed by the intended research.

The research question pinpoints what the research aims to find out and gives a clear purpose and focus for a research project. A good research question should be focused, researchable, feasible and practical, specific, and relevant to the field of study (Aspers & Corte, 2019). In nursing research, the PICOT strategy is used to frame the research question. PICOT “represents an acronym for Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time.” These elements are the essential components of the research question in evidence-based practice and when constructing research questions for bibliographic search.Research Problem and Research Questions

Review of Literature

A literature review refers to the all-inclusive summary of the previous research for the research topic.  The review of literature involves surveying scholarly journal articles, books, and other relevant sources to identify the current knowledge, identify relevant theories, and the existing knowledge gaps (Nakano & Muniz, 2018). The literature review should provide a theoretical base for the research project and assist in determining the nature of the research. Steps involved in the review of literature include searching the relevant literature, retrieving the sources and evaluating them, identifying themes and knowledge gaps, outlining the structure, and finally writing the literature review (Nakano & Muniz Jr, 2018).

Research Design

The research design refers to the framework for the research techniques and methods used by the researcher. The design the research methods to be refined to ensure they are suitable for the research topic. Examples of research designs include experimental, correlational, survey, semi-experimental, systematic review/meta-analysis, descriptive case-study, among other designs. A research design forms the blueprint for data collecting, measurement, and data analysis (Maher et al., 2018).

Sample Selection and the Significance of Sample Size

A sample refers to the representative subset of the population and the sample size is the number of people within a sample (Martínez-Mesa et al., 2016). Sampling methods include probability sampling and non-probability sampling. In probability sampling, every population member has the same likelihood of being a part of the sample while in the non-probability sampling each population member does not have the same probability of being selected. Selecting a good sample and suitable sample size support and strengthen a research study.  The sample should be representative of the population to increase the reliability and quality of the findings. The sample size should be large enough to provide sufficient “power” to the research (Martínez-Mesa et al., 2016). The power of research refers to the likelihood of correctly identifying that an intervention generates a treatment effect if it actually exists. An adequate/large sample size increases the reliability of the findings because it is more representative of the general population, and thus allows the findings to be generalized to the general population (Martínez-Mesa et al., 2016).

Data Collection for Qualitative Research

The various methods used to collect data in qualitative research include observations, interviews, focus groups, and textual or visual analysis. The most common data collective in qualitative healthcare research include focus groups and interviews. Interviews provide the most straightforward and direct strategy to gather rich and detailed data about a specific phenomenon (Barrett & Twycross, 2018). The kind of interview used in data collection can be tailored as per the research question, the research design, and the characteristics of the study participants. Interviews may be performed face-to-face or through phone calls. It is important to record and transcribe the interviews before data analysis. In focus groups, the facilitator talks with a group of participants (6-12) regarding issues allied to the research topic and research question (Barrett & Twycross, 2018). Focus groups provide an efficient and effective technique to collect the views of numerous participants at one time. Observation provides nurse researchers with a chance to collect a wide array of information that includes non-verbal and verbal communication, behaviors, and environmental aspects within a healthcare setting (Barrett & Twycross, 2018).Research Problem and Research Questions


Data Analysis in Qualitative Research

In qualitative research, data analysis involves systematic search and arrangement of the observation notes, interview transcripts, and other information captured by the researcher to facilitate understanding of the phenomenon (Raskind et al., 2019). Analysis of qualitative data normally involves coding or classifying the data. It thus entails making sense from the collected data by decreasing the volume of the raw data, identification of significant patterns, and finally drawing conclusions from the information and afterward building a rational chain of evidence. Coding entails subdividing a large amount of raw data and then assigning them into categories (thematic analysis). The researcher then synthesizes the data and interprets the meanings extracted from the data.

Reporting the Results of a Qualitative Study

The results of a qualitative study include presenting the most representative excerpt of the research findings. Reporting thus involves the synthesis and interpretation of the main findings such as the interpretations, themes, and inferences. Reporting might also include developing a theory. During reporting, the findings such as field notes, quotes, and text excerpts are linked to previous evidence in order to authenticate analytic findings.Research Problem and Research Questions


Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139–160.

Barrett, D., & Twycross, A. (2018). Data collection in qualitative research. BMJ Journals, 1(2).

Maher, C., Hadfield, M., Hutchings, M., & de Eyto, A. (2018). Ensuring rigor in qualitative data analysis: A design research approach to coding combining NVivo with traditional material methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1609406918786362.

Martínez-Mesa, J., González-Chica, D. A., Duquia, R. P., Bonamigo, R. R., & Bastos, J. L. (2016). Sampling: how to select participants in my research study?. Anais brasileiros de dermatologia, 91(3), 326–330.

Nakano, D., & Muniz Jr, J. (2018). Writing the literature review for empirical papers. Production, 28(1).

Raskind, I. G., Shelton, R. C., Comeau, D. L., Cooper, H., Griffith, D. M., & Kegler, M. C. (2019). A Review of Qualitative Data Analysis Practices in Health Education and Health Behavior Research. Health education & behavior: the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 46(1), 32–39.

Research Problem and Research Questions