Research Paper On Cervical Cancer

Research Paper On Cervical Cancer

Cancer is a dreaded disease, which is characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled division of body cells. It affects people of all occupations without regard to their age, gender, race or social status. Cancer has no cure, but when detected early it can be controlled. Almost any body organs and tissues can be affected by cancer. There are many different types of cancers, based on the type of cells that are affected. Common types of cancer include lung cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, bone marrow cancer, karposi’s sarcoma, colon cancer, liver cancer, prostrate cancer, skin cancer amongst others (Rolland, 2007, p. 23).Research Paper On Cervical Cancer
In this case, I will discuss cervical cancer, which is also referred to as cancer of the cervix. The cervix is the part of the female reproductive system that connects the uterus to the vagina. The mass of tissue resulting from extra cells are called tumors which can be malignant or benign. Benign growths are not cancer and are not dangerous as malignant ones. Often slow growing cervical cancer is in most cases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) (Rolland, 2007, p. 53). The resulting changes of this slow growing cancer on surface cells are not serious and may go away on their own. Other forms of cervical cancer require treatment to prevent them from developing into cancer; and this is commonly referred to as dysplasia phase. In some cases, hysterectomy may be employed. Main types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinomas, which contribute up to 90% and adeno carcinomas (Heather, 2009, p. 67).Research Paper On Cervical Cancer

The predisposing factors of cervical cancer include sexual intercourse before the age of eighteen years, having many sexual partners, and the human papilloma virus infection. It is also certain that a combination of HPV and any other predisposing factor often result in cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer include unexpected or sudden weight loss, bloating, abdominal pain, pelvic problems, and unusual discharge from the vagina.

The diagnosis of cervical cancer involves the process of screening, and tentative diagnostics being done on the cervical tissues. Screening for the human papilloma virus is also necessary to detect any possible infection.
Treatment includes radiotherapy, which is the use of soft x-rays or radiation energy to kill the cancerous cells, and chemotherapy involving the use of chemical compounds to inhibit the growth of cancerous cells. Surgery may also be used and it includes hysterectomy which is the removal of the uterus to stop the spread of the cancerous cells, also laser surgery may be recommended (Rolland, 2007, p. 73).Research Paper On Cervical Cancer

In order to treat cancer it is necessary to classify stages of the disease. There are four main stages of cervical cancer. In the first stage there is growth of the cancerous tumor into the inner cervix tissues. The growth is however limited to only these tissues (Heather, 2009, p. 87). The second stage is when the malignant cells start to spread from the cervix tissue to neighboring tissues and organs.


The third stage is marked by spread of tumor to other parts such as the lower vagina, the pelvic wall, and the uterus. The spread in this stage may also lead to blockage of the uterus and the vagina. In this stage of the cervical cancer the spread is to other organs that are not necessarily in direct contact with the cervix. Lastly, the most advanced stage is the fourth stage, whereby the tumor affects other body organs (Percorelli, 2003, p. 55). These stages can be a source of information to the doctors during diagnosis on the extent at which the cancerous cells has spread and therefore they can deduce the treatment depending on the stage the cervical cancer is in.Research Paper On Cervical Cancer

The body’s internal environment state of equilibrium or stability is referred to as homeostasis. Cancer develops abnormal cell masses that disrupt the normal functioning of the body thus disrupting the body internal equilibrium. In particular cervical cancer cells have a high reproduction rate and are very active. This means that they require more chemical energy thereby denying other normal body cells this source of energy from food eaten by the cancer patient (Percorelli, 2003, p. 45). In addition, the cancerous cells’ enzymes and hormones is either over active or under active hence also affecting normal body functioning. During treatment of cancer, some drugs can bring about an imbalance in body hormones, such as some may send signals to the kidneys hence changing the normal anti-deuretic hormone (ADH). This affects the functions of the kidney in response to the body needs (Rolland, 2007, p. 123). Cancer is said to be the mutation of cells. As a result, there is a possibility of the cells undergoing mitosis at a frequency that is higher than the body can cater for in terms of oxygen and other important nutrients (Heather, 2009, p. 97).Research Paper On Cervical Cancer
There are various sources for biological research in any area which include the use of published science journals, biology books, online libraries, from research papers and dissertation findings, and also from university or public libraries. One can also utilize the books readily available on the internet. Biological science sources are diverse, therefore one should only look for authentic sources which are recognized by the study system- be it university of science laboratories or the government’s ministry for education (Percorelli, 2003, p. 65). Research Paper On Cervical Cancer