Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Planning and Topic

Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Planning Before Teaching:

Name and Credentials of Teacher:


Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:

45-60 minutes

Location of Teaching:

Morrow Elementary School

Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:

Posters, pamphlets, and snacks


Estimated Cost:


Community and Target Aggregate: Adults (25-35 years old)



Preventing and reducing the risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


 Topic Identification

The author‘s focus was to teach adults aged 25-35 years old on the prevention and reduction of T2DM and related risks. Type 2 DM is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to the dysfunction of beta cells and resistance to insulin. T2DM is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular illnesses, microvascular and macrovascular complications such as neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Besides, T2DM has serious social and emotional impacts on individuals, families, and significant economic implications for communities. Education influences behavior change through knowledge acquisition of T2DM. Participants can apply this knowledge to maintain glycemic control if they know the most basic principles of physical activity and nutrition. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion


Epidemiological Rationale

According to the statistics provided by IDF (International Diabetes Federation), an estimated 415 million adults had DM globally the year 2015. It further approximates that, by the year 2040, this population will increase to 642 million and the majority live in low to middle-income nations (Zheng, Ley & Hu, 2018).  More than 90% of these cases are type 2DM and have tremendously contributed mortalities and morbidities (Zheng, Ley & Hu, 2018). For instance, in the year 2010, type 2DM caused up to 3.96 million adult deaths (20-79 years old). In 2015, diabetes and diabetes-related deaths increased to 5 million. Similarly, the incidence of diabetes-related morbidities continues to increase since the year 1990 among people aged 15-69 years (CDC, 2017). In the United States, more than 100 million people have DM and an estimated 90-95% of these cases are T2DM. T2DM cases are high among   Alaska Natives and American Indians (15.1%), Hispanics (12.1%), and non-Hispanic blacks (12.7%) in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (7.4%) and Asians (8.0%)(CDC, 2017).

Teaching Plan Criteria

Nursing Diagnosis

Imbalanced nutrition: food intake exceeding body needs as evidenced by more than 20% of optimum body weight.

Readiness for Learning

Participants will verbalize their thoughts and perceptions on how to prevent T2DM, ask questions, and seek clarification to be able to distinguish diabetes-related myths with facts, and verbalize the knowledge obtained.

Learning Theory’

The author selected Bandura’s social learning theory, which lays a major emphasis on the essence to not only model but also observe the emotional reactions, and attitudes. It clearly describes a human’s behavior as a continuous reciprocal interaction between environmental, cognitive, and behavioral influences (Akers & Jennings, 2016). The author will apply this theory to influence behavior modeling in the prevention of T2DM. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion


Objective D-16 of Healthy People 2020 is to increase prevention behaviors in people who are at high risk for diabetes with prediabetes particularly those who report trying to lose weight (D-16.2), increase physical activity levels (D-16.1) and amount of dietary calories or fat9D-16.3) (Healthy People, 2020).   Healthy People 2020 highlights that individuals aged 18 years or older are at high risk of T2DM. Those with the greatest risk are individuals who have reportedly tried to lose excess weight through physical activity or reducing the number of dietary calories and fat, fasting plasma glucose exceeds or equals to 100, and HbAIC exceeds 6.5% (Healthy People, 2020).

Relation to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives

Alma Ata’s Health centers on primary care to attain universal health for everyone by focusing on community participation, priorities, needs, values, and vision. It acknowledges barriers to accessing care including health education as a key contributor to health disparities that can result in long-term health inequities. Although it does not highlight T2DM   among the ten prioritized interventions, it emphasizes the need for health education as an integral tool for prevention (Healthy People, 2020). Similarly, the Healthy People 2020 diabetes goal is to decrease DM incidences and improve people’s QoL.

Behavioral Objective  and Domain Content


1. Participants will be able to state diabetes-related myths and facts 1. The posters and pamphlets have several diabetes myths that can be a harmful result of stigma and misinformation. 1. An interactive question-answer session where participants mention common diabetes-related myths and distinguish them with facts.
2. Participants will be able to identify lifestyle habits that increase the risk of type 2 DM 2. Sedentary lifestyle habits such as physical inactivity and poor dietary habits (fats, calories, and sugars) will increase the risk of obesity and subsequent T2DM. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion 2. Posters and pamphlets will contain a list of lifestyle habits that increase the risk of obesity and subsequent T2DM.
3. Participants will be able to identify the symptoms of  type 2DM 3. The posters and pamphlets contain  a list and pictorial representation of  the symptoms of T2DM 3. Request participants to demonstrate some symptoms voluntarily while the audience identifies each symptom.
4. Participants will be able to identify dietary modifications to reduce the risk of type 2 DM. 4. Dietary modifications will help to reduce the intake of fats, sugars, and calories hence decrease the risk of heart diseases and obesity. 4. The pamphlet will contain  diagrams to demonstrate the most recommended foods to include in the diet and  those not to include


The author used different teaching strategies to promote the audience’s understanding. This includes an interactive question and answers session, visuals to illustrate lifestyle habits that increase T2DM risk, and most recommended foods to include when modifying diet.               

Planned Evaluation of Objectives

  • Distinguish between diabetes myths and facts. Participants will be able to distinguish T2DM myths and facts.
  • Make lifestyle modifications to prevent obesity and reduce the risk of T2DM, Modifications include daily moderate to vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 minutes.
  • Participants will be able to monitor and identify symptoms of T2DM and seek immediate medical help when deemed necessary.
  • Participants will be able to make healthier food choices by selecting from a wide variety to decrease the risk of T2DM.

Planned Evaluation of Goal

Conduct close follow-up after 12 weeks to assess individual and communal progress in regards to preventing T2DM. Very few or no new cases of T2DM will determine successful outcomes.


Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher

The author will provide all the participants with an evaluation questionnaire at the end of each session. The questionnaire will focus on rating the lesson, as well as the materials used to conduct training.


The most likely potential barrier is a failure to maintain a scheduled physical activity or dietary routine and the fear to report non-compliance. Other participants might feel that that they lack the capacity and ability to make the required lifestyle changes Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Therapeutic Communication

The author will start her conversation with an introductory part where there are a self-introductory part and topic of interest. Just before beginning, participants will receive snacks. To promote active listening, the author will structure the lesson to be in form of a question-answer session and seek clarifications where deemed appropriate. At the end of the presentation, the author will select any volunteer among the participants to share/brainstorm with each other.


Zheng, Y., Ley, S. H., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Global etiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology14(2), 88.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). New CDC report: More than 100 million Americans have diabetes or prediabetes. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www. CDC. gov/media/releases/2017/p0718-diabetes report. HTML.

Akers, R. L., & Jennings, W. G. (2016). Social learning theory. Wiley Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 230-240.

Healthy People 2020. (2020). Diabetes. Retrieved August 23, 2020 from


Primary Prevention/Health Promotion