Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay

Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay

Portfolio Assignment 1 1. Go to the website Medical News Today (Links to an external site.) (MNT). This website provides a variety of “hot” medical topics that are currently being discussed. 2. Select a topic. 3. Read the MNT article on the topic. 4. Obtain 3 scholarly articles on the topic and compare them to the information in the MNT article. 5. In 5 pages (excluding title page and references), describe the normal physiology and pathological phenomena of the topic and its clinical manifestations. a. For example, one topic is that of Oxycontin and cooperative behavior. One would need to gather scholarly articles on Oxycontin, its normal effects on the body, uses, bodily processes that are affected with pain relief, etc. You would need to discuss clinical manifestations – signs and symptoms – as related to the MNT article. Grading Rubric 1. The student identified the topic and described all the normal physiology. The descriptions were very accurate, clear, and complete. 2. The student described all the pertinent pathological phenomena associated with the topic or condition.Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay.  The explanation was very accurate, clear, and complete. 3. The student explained the most important signs and symptoms of the pathology. The explanations were very accurate, clear, and complete. 4. The student employed APA style in-text citations to the paper and referenced 3 scholarly articles with no more than two minor errors.

Portfolio Assignment

The Medical News Today (MNT) article provides useful insights into the potential and perceived association between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and nutritional deficiencies (MNT, 2020). According to the findings in the article, poor nutritionand unhealthy diet may significantly heighten the risk of experiencing a higher incidence of PTSD. Evidence presented in the MNT article indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is connected with diminished healthy eating and poor diet(e.g. limited consumption of dietary fiber, increased consumption of convenience meals) (MNT, 2020). Regarding non-dietary factors, the article revealed that socio-economic status as defined by noteworthy differences in household income also exacerbated symptoms of PTSD, with individuals from poor household at risk of experiencing this mental health disorder. Statistics presented by the researchers indicated that about 3.9% of men and 6.9% of women had post-traumatic stress disorder, revealing the contribution of gender to PTSD.  Other findings from the MNT article reported that mid-aged individuals with PTSD experienced increased risk of metabolic, cardio-vascular and musculoskeletal conditions. The high prevalence of PTSD among immigrants was also reported in the article based on the distinct lived experiences (e.g. armed conflict, natural disasters, and poverty) of immigrants when compared to Canadian-born white persons (MNT, 2020).Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay

In a meta-analysis, Berk-Clark et al. (2018) examined the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced healthy eating, physical activity, high rates of obesity and risky behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, alcoholism and smoking). The findings shows the existence of established relationship between PTSD with poor health behaviors such as high caloric intake. Rothbaum and Rauch (2020) added that a number of nutritional factors including intake of nuts, snacks and pulses, pastries and chocolate, limited dietary fiber intake, and poor nutritional status increased the likelihood of experiencing PTSD among immigrant minority groups in comparison to white Canadians born in the country. Similar, tothe findings in the MNT (2020) article, Theal et al. (2018) asserted that a myriad of nutrition-related factors such as poor dietary, sedentary lifestyle and income differences contributed to this chronic mental disorder in mid-aged and older adults.

In addition, Cleamons (2016) covered a useful discussion on the nutritional, pharmaceutical and bio-psychological components of PTSD in veterans as a high-risk population. In particular, thequantitative study revealed that nutritional factors such as excessive caloric intake heightened the risk of obesity and other detrimentalhealth conditions that could exacerbate PTSD symptoms and its effects. The findings by Theal et al. (2018) indicated that a range of nutrients in the diet consumed by an individual may have implications on psychological disorders and vice-versa. The consumption of poor quality diets and poor nutrition may highly contribute to increased occurrence of poor psychological health due to compromised bio-psychological health and wellbeing (Theal et al., 2018; Cleamons (2016).Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay


While reviewing the connection between PTSD with eating behaviors and physicalactivity, Hall et al. (2015) asserted that health-promoting behaviors and interventions may pose beneficial implications on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The study emphasized the need for discouraging risk behaviors (such as smoking and alcohol abuse) and poor dietary habits in favor of increased involvement in physical activity and consumption of healthy foods as the starting point for managing PTSD as a prevalent, chronic and costly psychiatry disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Hall et al. (2015) asserted that individualswith mental health conditions such as PTSD are less likely to consume optimal diet. As a result, the high prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns in this patient population could be a major contributingfactorbehind higher distress levels among individuals with PTSD symptoms. Some of the undesirable food patterns of individuals with PTSD include skipping meals, desire for sweet foods, desire for convenience meals and poor appetite(Berk-Clark et al., 2018). Equally, the consumption of foods with limited vital nutrients such as Omega 3 fatty acids, inadequate dairy/meat protein, reduced vegetable and fruit intake and lower intake of essential minerals and vitaminsmay contribute to poor health, thus exacerbating PTSD symptoms(MNT, 2020).

Ideally, the findings presented in the reviewed scholarly articles confirmed the insights covered in the MNT article on the relationship between PTSD and nutrition. Rothbaum and Rauch (2020) insisted that the use of diet in the treatment of PTSD as a severe mental health condition is gaining prominence based on the positive side effects of better nutrition on our emotional, physical and mental health and well-being. Nevertheless, Theal et al. (2018) cautioned that the occurrence of metabolic dysfunction due to increased production of specific hormones (Andiponectin and Leptin) as well as stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol may heighten the risk of experiencing PTSD symptoms. Whilst post-traumatic stress disorder is largely viewed as an emotional or bio-chemical dysfunction mainly associated with trauma, the recent findings indicate that nutrition may play an instrumental role in the onset of this mental condition as well as the duration, intensity and outcomes(MNT, 2020).Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay

Similarly, Rothbaum and Rauch (2020) insisted that the lack of proper nutrition among people with mental health disorders such as PTSD contributes to their heightened risk for poor emotional, cognitive and physical health. Empirical studies indicated the clinical symptoms of PTSD includingintrusive thoughts, nightmares, and feelings of guilt, insomnia, headaches, anxiety, poor concentration, social detachment and unrelenting negative emotion may have harmful effects on the eating patterns and nutrition status of the affected person (Lebdi et al., 2019; Hall et al., 2015). As a clinical manifestation of post-traumatic disorder, unhealthy eating patterns in favor of bingeing or food addiction may be associated with detrimental mood changes in individuals with PTSD. Whilst the findings in the MNT (2020) article showed the existence of a direct relationship between PTSD and nutritional patterns, the study by Lebdi et al. (2019) noted that the use of targeted nutrition interventions within multi-dimensional programming may assist in managing or preventing post-traumatic stress disorder.

Although there lack specific medications for treatment of PTSD, the core findings presented in the MNT article and the reviewed scholarly literature indicated that proper diet may be given consideration as an alternative treatment option for this chronic mental health disorder(MNT, 2020). The reviewed findings revealed that access to proper nutrition and healthy eating behaviors may improve the physical and mental health of individuals at risk of PTSD, thereby helping to prevent or manage symptoms and effects of this life-changing mental health condition. Besides helping in the management of physicalcomorbidities, optimal diet may also have significant impact on the biological processes (e.g. brain chemical irregularities, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut micro-biome dysbiosis and oxidative stress) underlying post-traumatic disorder (Davison et al., 2020). Moreover, adherence to conventional dietary patterns such as the Japanese diet, the Norwegian andMediterranean diet may pose positive side effects, and hence can be adopted to support medication and therapy. Although the current pool of findings on the relationship between nutrition and PTSD identifies the need for healthy nutritional patterns, there exist scant literature on a definite diet treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (Lebdi et al., 2019;Berk-Clark et al., 2018).Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay


Berk-Clark, C., Secrest, S., Walls, J., Hallberg, E., Lustman, P.J., &Scherrer, J.F. (2018).Association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and lack of exercise, poor diet, obesity and co-occuring smoking: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. HealthPsychology, 37(5), 407–416.doi: 10.1037/hea0000593

Cleamons, V. (2016).Biopsychological, Pharmaceutical, and Nutritional Aspects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans, 1-28. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15510.65607

Davison, K.M., Hyland, C., Lin, S.L., & Tong, H. (2020).Nutrition Factors Are Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Immigrant and Canadian-Born Adults: Findings from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Current Concepts in Nutrition, 3, 18-30.DOI: 10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_018

Hall, K. S., Hoerster, K. D., &Yancy, W. S. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder, physical activity, and eating behaviors. Epidemiologic Reviews, 37(1), 103-115. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxu011

Lebdi, M., Ben Cjeikh, C., &Seghaier, S. (2019). Vulnerability factors of post-traumatic stress disorder. https://doi.org/10.26226/morressier.5d1a035e57558b317a13f7c2

MNT, (2020).The connection between post-traumatic stress disorder and nutrition.https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/the-connection-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-nutrition#Poverty-and-PTSD

Rothbaum, B. O., & Rauch, S. A. (2020). What is PTSD? PTSD. https://doi.org/10.1093/wentk/9780190930370.003.0004

Theal, R., Tay, V. X., & Hickman, I. J. (2018). Conflicting relationship between dietary intake and metabolic health in PTSD: A systematic review. Nutrition Research, 54, 12-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.03.002. Portfolio Assignment 1 Essay