Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay
Well my paper is on pneumonia. The small I do cognize about pneumonia is that it is caused by an infection. You can retrieve from pneumonia with the right intervention. Pneumonia is more serious with people with weak immune systems. But to foster my cognition on pneumonia I did some research.
What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by bacteriums. a virus or Fungi. The infection inflames your lungs’ air pouch. which are called alveoli. The air pouch may make full up with fluid or Pus. doing symptoms such as a cough with emotionlessness ( a slimy substance ) . febrility. icinesss. and problem external respiration.
What are some symptoms of pneumonia? Pneumonia and its symptoms can change from mild to severe. Many factors affect how serious pneumonia is. such as the type of source doing the infection. your age and your overall wellness. Symptoms of pneumonia caused by bacteriums in otherwise healthy people younger than 65 normally come on all of a sudden. They frequently start during or after an upper respiratory infection. such as the grippe or a cold. Symptoms may include. cough. frequently bring forthing mucous secretion. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood. febrility. which may be less common in older grownups. agitating. “teeth-chattering” icinesss. one clip merely or many times. Fast shallow external respiration. chest wall hurting that is frequently made worse by coughing or take a breathing in. fast pulse. experiencing really tired or weak. sickness or emesis. and diarrhoea.
Symptoms of pneumonia non caused by bacteriums may come on bit by bit and are frequently non as bad or every bit obvious as symptoms of bacterial pneumonia. Many people don’t know that they have nonbacterial pneumonia. because they don’t experience ill. But symptoms may include febrility. cough. shortness of breath and small mucous secretion when you cough. When symptoms are mild. your physician may name your status “walking” pneumonia.
How can an single get pneumonia? An person can acquire pneumonia by bacteriums and viruses populating in your olfactory organ. fistulas. or talk it may distribute to your lungs. you may take a breath some of these sources straight into your lungs and when you breathe in nutrient. liquids. puke. or fluids from the oral cavity into your lungs called aspiration pneumonia.
Aspiration pneumonia is redness of the lungs and the air passages to the lungs or the bronchial tubings. from take a breathing in foreign stuff. Aspiration pneumonia can be caused by take a breathing in puke. a foreign object. such as a peanut. and a harmful substance. such as fume or a chemical. The object or substance inhaled causes annoyance in the lungs or amendss them. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay.
What are the phases of pneumonia that an person may travel through? There are four phases to pneumonia which an person may travel through after undertaking the status. The four phases of pneumonia are congestion. ruddy hepatization. grey hepatization and declaration. The congestion is a phase that comprises of legion bacteriums. It consists of vascular engorgement. intra-alveolar fluid. and little Numberss of neutrophils. The ruddy hepatization is a vascular obstruction persists. with extravasations of ruddy cells into alveolar topographic points. which could besides include some Numberss of neutrophils and fibrin. The more the air spaces are filled by the exudations it sort of leads to a disgusting expression of hardening. of the alveolar parenchyma. It is known as “hepatization” . sine it looks has been likened to that of the liver.
The 3rd phase is the Gray hepatization phase. In this phase the ruddy cells happen to interrupt up. due to the bumptiousness of the neutrophils and fibrin. The 4th and concluding phase is the declaration phase. In this phase the enzymatic activity digests the exudations and is besides wholly cleared by some sort of cough mechanism. Depending on the cause. the badness of the symptoms. your age and wellness. it is treatable like other infections. Most healthy people recover from pneumonia within one to two hebdomads but it can be life threating. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay. However pneumonia can be prevented by acquiring an one-year grippe shooting. often rinsing your custodies. and for those at a higher hazard by acquiring a vaccinum for pneumococcal pneumonia will diminish your opportunities at acquiring it.
Treatment depends on the badness of the pneumonia. Some people may hold to be hospitalized. You may have antibiotics. which dainty bacteriums. Some people may acquire particular antibiotics to handle bacteriums that live in the oral cavity. The type of bacteriums that caused the pneumonia depends on your wellness. where you live such as at place or in a long-run nursing installation. whether you’ve late been hospitalized. or recent antibiotic usage. Pneumonia is lifelessly but if treated in clip you will be all right.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung which can result from infection with particular bacteria, viruses or other organisms. It is characterised by lung parenchyma inflammation and the filling of the air-filled sacs of the lung (alveoli) with fluid resulting in a decrease in elasticity which leads to inefficient gas exchange. In excess of 5 million cases of infectious pneumonia are estimated to occur annually in the US resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations. The onset of this condition is usually prompted following the weakening of an individual’s immune system, such as by a viral upper respiratory tract infection or following an incidence of influenza. It is a condition of particular concern in those over sixty five years of age, those with chronic immune disorders or young infants, all of whom have a reduced ability to combat infections.
Retrieved from [http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/pnu/pnu_all.html]
Almost half of all pneumonia cases originate bacterially. Some incidences of pneumonia are acquired by the inhalation of small droplets containing the organism or bacteria and these germs enter the air when the infected individual sneezes or coughs. In other circumstances the condition precipitates when bacteria or viruses that are present in the nose or mouth under normal conditions enter the lungs. However, if a person is weakened by an existing condition, severe pneumonia can develop. Along with classification based on the symptoms experienced, pneumonia can be categorized based on where or how the disease is contracted and can usually be divided into several subgroups which comprise hospital acquired pneumonia, community acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay.
CAP can develop as a result of the attack unleashed by pathogenic microorganisms on the lung and the response of the immune system to the infection that ensues. S. pneumonia, H. influenza, C. pneumonia and M. pneumonia are the prevalent bacterial origins of the condition with S.pneumoniae presenting as the most frequent pathogen responsible following epidemiological studies (Luna et al., 2000). A relatively inoffensive form of pneumonia results that rarely involves hospitalization. In accordance with the guidelines developed by the American Thoracic Society for the management of CAP patients should be treated for the possibility of an atypical pathogen infection (Niederman et al., 2001). Organism-specific therapy may be possible in some patients depending on culture results. CAP is characterized by the presentation of a high fever, shaking chills and a cough with yellowish sputum which may be accompanied by chest pain. It can also cause shortness of breath which considerably impacts those with chronic lung conditions such as asthma and emphysema.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) tends to be more severe than pneumonia acquired in the community mostly due to the fact that the organisms involved tend to be more aggressive and difficult to treat. Also, individuals in hospitals or care homes who contract this condition may often already have compromised immune systems and may not be able to fight off the infection. It remains the most frequent and severe nosocomial infection encountered in the ICU and the mortality incidence of patients with HAP is high (33% of unventilated patients) (Smith-Sims, 2001). The symptoms of HAP are usually the same as CAP in general. Early and suitable antibiotic therapy has been discovered to result in a decline in patient mortality rates in clinical studies due to this type of pneumonia. Patients diagnosed with nosocomial pneumonia are twice as likely to survive if in receipt of suitable antibiotic therapy, with the timing and adequacy of treatment being of crucial importance (Celis et al., 1988).Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay. Due to the fact that the timing of antibiotic therapy with respect to suspicion of pneumonia is an imperative factor affecting mortality and that HAP diagnosis remains elusive, initial empiric therapy appears to be best practice (Fiel, 2001).
An example of an additional type of pneumonia is aspiration pneumonia which is often described as the inhalation of foreign substances such as gastric matter into the lungs. This can lead toconditions such aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis. Aspiration pneumonitis results from chemical injury due to the inhalation of sterile gastric materials whereas aspiration pneumonia is an infectious process resulting from inhalation of saliva which has been previously colonised by pathogenic bacteria (Marik, 2001). Factors that predispose an individual to aspiration pneumonia include a decreased level of consciousness, neurologic disorders, dysphagia and the aspiration of material in association with a tracheostomy (Finegold, 1991). Antimicrobial agents are the keystone of treatment and prolonged therapy is important in the prevention of relapse.
Viral pneumonia on the other hand can be caused by the influenza virus along with herpes or varicella, including those responsible for the outbreak of the common cold (adenoviruses). The two types of influenza virus, A and B, are characterised by respiratory complaints in conjunction with headaches, fever and muscle aches. Contracting herpes or varicella pneumonia is usually rare unless infection with the varicella zoster virus (chicken pox) occurs. Adenovirus originating pneumonia is frequently accompanied by common cold symptoms such as a runny nose and conjunctivitis. Viral pneumonia symptoms include muscle aches, tiredness, low grade fever and the presence of a cough with very little mucus It is rarely serious and usually does not require admittance to hospital. Medicines such as analgesics (to relieve chest pain) and acetaminophen (to reduce fever) may be given to alleviate symptoms however this particular type of pneumonia is resistant to treatment with antibiotics unlike its bacterial counterpart.
A vast range of diagnostic strategies are available to identify the presence of pneumonia in individuals. These include laboratory tests such as sputum examination, blood cultures or urinary antigen tests for the suspected bacterium involved. Chest X-rays are common diagnostic tools utilized and are helpful in the detection of complications of the condition also. The treatment for pneumonia can vary depending on the gravity of the symptoms and the category of pneumonia the patient has. Bacterial pneumonia requires the administration of an antibiotic, the choice of which is influenced by the age of the patient, chronic medical conditions they may have and the microorganism responsible for the infection. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay. Macrolides are the most popular choice of antibiotic and are usually recommended in the treatment of CAP as they are effective against most microorganisms involved in this particular class of pneumonia. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole may be administered if the patient has a history of COPD or smoking. These antibiotics are usually accompanied by anti-fever medications such as ibuprofen and occasionally a cough suppressant may be suggested.
There are fewer options in the treatment of viral pneumonia however as very few antiviral agents are available on the market. Acyclovir is efficacious in children with lung infections involving herpes simplex, herpes zoster or varicella varieties (Feldman, 1994). Ganciclovir has been successfully demonstrated in immunocompromised patients with conditions such as AIDS or transplant patients with CMV (cytomegalovirus) pneumonia (Reed et al., 1988).
The prognosis of pneumonia is quite good in patients without complications. To aid in the prevention of this condition, rigorous hygiene procedures should be followed in settings such as hospitals and nursing homes where there are individuals present with compromised immune systems. Also, smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients. Current research is underway to establish a more efficient treatment for this condition which will still eradicate the infectious microorganism and promote early defense but without the inflammatory tissue injury associated with sepsis (Cazzola et al., 2005).
CAZZOLA, M., MATERA, M. & PEZZUTO, G. 2005. Inflammation-a new therapeutic target in pneumonia. Respiration, 72, 117-126.
CELIS, R., TORRES, A., GATELL, J., ALMELA, M., RODRIGUEZ-ROISIN, R. & AGUSTI-VIDAL, A. 1988. Nosocomial pneumonia. A multivariate analysis of risk and prognosis. Chest, 93, 318.
FELDMAN, S. 1994. Varicella-zoster virus pneumonitis. CHEST-CHICAGO-, 106, 22-22.
FIEL, S. 2001. Guidelines and Critical Pathways for Severe Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia*. Chest, 119, 412S.
FINEGOLD, S. 1991. Aspiration pneumonia. Reviews of infectious diseases, 737-742. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay.
LUNA, C., FAMIGL IETTI, A., ABSI, R., VIDELA, A., NOGUEIRA, F., FUENZALIDA, A. & GENÉ, R. 2000. Community-Acquired Pneumonia*. Chest, 118, 1344.
MARIK, P. 2001. Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 665.
NIEDERMAN, M., MANDELL, L., ANZUETO, A., BASS, J., BROUGHTON, W., CAMPBELL, G., DEAN, N., FILE, T., FINE, M. & GROSS, P. 2001. Guidelines for the management of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis, assessment of severity, antimicrobial therapy, and prevention. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 163, 1730.
REED, E., BOWDEN, R., DANDLIKER, P., LILLEBY, K. & MEYERS, J. 1988. Treatment of cytomegalovirus pneumonia with ganciclovir and intravenous cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin in patients with bone marrow transplants. Annals of internal medicine, 109, 783.
SMITH-SIMS, K. 2001. Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. The American Journal of Nursing, 101, 24-24. Pneumonia and Cough Mechanism Essay.