Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
PHARM wk 2 Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders …heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease… —Murphy et al., 2018 Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors. Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm To Prepare Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece. Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment below: Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following: Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun Aspirin 81 mg daily Metformin 1000 mg po bid Glyburide 10 mg bid Atenolol 100 mg po daily Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors. Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders. Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient. Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned. Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders. Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements. Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the. Rubric 1.) Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned. 23 (23%) – 25 (25%) The response accurately and completely explains in detail how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient. 2.) Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient\’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples. 27 (27%) – 30 (30%) The response accurately and completely describes in detail how changes in the processes might impact the patient\’s recommended drug therapy.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders. Accurate, complete, and aligned examples are provided to support the response. 3.) Explain how you might improve the patient\’s drug therapy plan, and explain why you would make these recommended improvements. 27 (27%) – 30 (30%) The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how to improve the patient\’s drug therapy plan. The response includes an accurate and detailed explanation to support the recommended improvements. 4.) Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. 5.) Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors 6.) Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct APA format with no errors and reference CANNOT BE more tha 5 yrs old and should be from a scholarly peer preview reference. Include the text book below in the reference: Lehne\’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurses and Physician Assistants – With Access 2ND 21 Author: Rosenthal, Laura / Burchum, Jacqueline ISBN-13: 978-0-323-55495-4 ISBN-10: 0-323-55495-4 Edition/Copyright: 2ND 21 Publisher: Elsevier Science
Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
An overlap exists in medicine subspecialties such as medical pharmacology, physiology, medicinal drug discovery, and medical therapy. According to Murphy et al. (2018), advancing age is characteristic of an impairment in the functioning of different regulatory processes in the body that is responsible for the functional integration between organs and cells. This contributes to the fact that age-specific death rates for people over the age of 85% continue to be high (Murphy et al., 2018). Due to this impairment, there may be a failure to maintain homeostasis when the body is in a state of physiological stress. This reduced homeostatic ability, in turn, has an effect on different systems of regulation in different patients.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders. The above phenomenon, in part, explains the increased interindividual variability that is associated with advancing age. Important changes occur where pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are concerned as a person grows older. Changes in pharmacokinetics include reduced hepatic and renal clearance and an increase in the volume of distribution of lipid-soluble drugs. These processes, in turn, result in a prolonged elimination half-life for drugs. On the other hand, changes in pharmacodynamics include an increased sensitivity to numerous classes of drugs such as psychotropic drugs, cardiovascular drugs, and anticoagulants.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
The recommended drug therapy for the patient in question includes a daily dose of Warfarin. However, due to the pharmacodynamics changes that occur with age, the patient would be at risk of bleeding. This is because of the increased sensitivity to anticoagulants. When mixed with Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, Warfarin increases a patient’s risk of bleeding. The recommended dose may also need to be reduced from 100 mg PO to 25-50 mg/day PO for the patient’s hypertension. This recommendation isdue to the patient’s potential increased sensitivity to cardiovascular drugs such as the recommended Atenolol.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
From an advanced practice nurse’s perspective, it is mandatory to be aware of all age-related pharmacological and physiological changes that occur with age. This will allow nurses and physicians to avoid irrational prescriptions, minimize adverse drug reactions, and maximize the benefits of the drug to elderly patients. Nurses need to play a role in educating older patients as well as their care providers on the importance and proper use of different classes of drugs to their health and well-being. By doing so, they will have set therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients, in turn increasing their quality of life.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
In a bid to improve the above patient’s drug therapy, it is important to remember that patients with TIA that is related to arterial fibrillation need to be treated with anticoagulation. This response recommends Dipyridamole and aspirin. The former will be given to reduce the risk of a stroke. When mixed with aspirin, it is given as an extended-release form and given twice a day. While the drug has side effects in the line of diarrhea and headache, they tend to improve within the initial week.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
` From the above response, combination pharmacotherapy is the way to improve health outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disorders. Central to the above endeavour is an understanding of patient pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamicsand hot they are affected by age. While efficacious, the above form of therapy has also been seen to have side effects. The role of advance practice nurses is central in ensuring that these side effects and ADRs are eliminated to maximize patient health, safety, and outcomes.Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.