Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.


A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections: Title page Introduction section A comparison of research questions A comparison of sample populations A comparison of the limitations of the study A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.


PICOT is a healthcare concern that relies on the facts of the effort to take care of health issues. PICOT embodies a nature-tested instrument that aims to identify the reason for and what can be used to solve on a health problem. Across a whole healthcare setting, a few health issues arise, like illnesses that impact health care professionals due to their patient relationships. The workforce that is likely to be adversely affected is the patient caregivers, alluding to the group involved in the PICOT test.PICOT represents a substantial stage wherein health concerns can be handled by a closer look and redirected to the exploration of solutions that will bring an end to the matter. The study will help to provide an alternative viewpoint and intervention strategies that may be used to resolve concerns about health. Some studies have pointed to health issues where PICOT may be used for analysis. This paper will involve the literature review of the shortage of nurses, their implications, the population in research and the limitation of the research. At this point, the paper will make a recommendation that can be followed to fix the issue.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Research Question Comparisons

Many of the research questions in these studies revolved around why is the issue of nursing shortages likely to get worse without remedial policy interventions?What correlation exists between nurse staffing levels and nurse-sensitive patient outcomes?What is known about current nurse workforces and shortages and what can be done to forestall such shortages?What are the factorsthat lead tohealthcare providersleaving the medical profession setting?What are the causes of nurses’ shortages? How will the future be for healthcare concerning nurses shortages?What are the causes of nursing shortage and its impact on health policies and systems?Why the evident importunate shortage of registered nurses? Why despite all of the growth in supply, will there still be a shortfall of several nursing professionals by 2020?

The key idea behind the cause for the shortage of nurses is seen in these studies, along with the steps that have been placed in order to guarantee that the entire issue is resolved. Research questions were integral in that they could provide a top-to-bottom research on the key reason for the nursing shortage and how it could have been addressed. The research sought to fix the issue of the shortage of nurses in the health of patients and steps to manage the issue (Dreddan & Ross, 2019).

Comparison of sample populations

Any research relies on the population sample that provides a basis for health professionals to obtain the results of the study and the comprehensive recommendations. The sample population in this research consisted of registered nurses in high-income countries, nurses in each state of the USA, Arizona nurses, national listings and strategic documents for nursing policy in Poland, Electronic databases, and published documents from international organizations with remits for nursing workforces.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.


The main aim of choosing these populations was to convey information about the impacts of the nurse shortage into the healthcare, the effects to the patients and what burden do the existing nurses face when handling the various patients. One of the studies subdivided the group into subgroups based on whether they have experienced the impact of the nurse shortage. The information conveyed was compared to the one which was acquired in the previous studies, and this helped a lot in gaining a better understanding of the effects of the nurse shortages and the problem the existing burses encounter (Marć et al., 2019).Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Comparison of the limitations of the study

Each research has its own weaknesses, which indicate the problems encountered by the study. Some researchers have faced limitations that vary from one professional to another. In any event, there are strong barriers to various studies. Disparities, however, tend to map the problem to which it relates. In the study performed by Goodare(2017), the weakness of the study was the difficulties provided by the professional caregivers in responding to the investigation.Failure to collect accurate details about the causes for the shortage of nurses and the effect of staffing issues  on patients and other personnel in the healthcare system. Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.The research was examined with the measure of constructive critique where the example population had concerns regarding the initial point of the study to the degree that their professions were involved.Johnson et al, (2016), facedtheweakness of insufficient information by focusing only on Arizona nurses in their study. Some of the nurses were not interested in the care of vulnerable patients, and the information they provided was not a clear representation of the problem being addressed. Another drawback of the research was the idea that several patients were unable to discuss the different causes of the shortage of nurses, and the inaccurate information and misinformation was a weakness of the study as a whole (Driscoll et al., 2018).Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.



Further work has to be driven by taking account of the inclinations and constraints that have been identified to previous studies. Emergency medical conditions are a big concern that needs to be tackled in order to improve the efficiency of healthcare services in order to provide quality care to patients. Nurse shortages should be resolved as soon as humanly possible, because several  of the patients included in the study face various problems that cause deaths. Nursing staff are burdened by the care of several patients at the same time. It is therefore the responsibility of the   government to intervene to resolve the issue of nursing shortage.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

There is a global nursing shortage of close to 7.2 million nurses.

Evidence-Based Solution

Buchan, Duffield & Jordan (2015) recommend the need to increase the number of employed nurses through good human resource management practices such as hiring new nurses, promoting retention through better salaries, incentives and awards. The researchers emphasize that such HRM practices positively impact the quality of care and economic performance of healthcare organizations. Duffield et al. (2014) emphasize the need to implement policies that promote nurses’ retention and inspire ‘returners’ to practice as a strategy to increase the number of employed nurses.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

The researchers refer to the ‘Return to Practice’ campaign that was held in England. According to the campaign, the cost of training a new nurse is higher (GBP51000) in comparison with retaining a former nurse (GBP2000). According to Duffield et al. (2014), apart from being a cost-effective strategy, strategies that focus on promoting nurses’ retention such as good HRM practices are more rapid than a three to four duration to train new nurses.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

PICOT Question:



Nursing Intervention

At the organizational level, Drennan & Ross (2019) suggest that nurse leaders should implement good evidence-based HRM practices known to decrease high rates of voluntary nurses’ turnover such as clear and well-understood nursing recruitment and retention strategies. An effective recruitment strategy is providing support and transition programs for newly hired nurses and implementing a collaborative leadership style to foster teamwork and group cohesion. Retention strategies that reduce nursing turnover are giving flexible work schedules, providing opportunities for career advancement, recognizing, and rewarding performers. These strategies do not only help to create a positive work environment but also inspire nurses to work. The aforementioned strategies also ensure that nurses practice to the full scope of their training. According to Goodare (2017), implementing good HRM strategies in nursing practice influences a decrease in nurses’ workloads, prompting them to take a workload that is more realistic than not only boosts their job satisfaction but also reduces fatigue, and intention to leave the practice.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Patient Care

According to Drennan & Ross (2019), there exists a relationship between the levels of staffing of RNs and the safety of patients in acute in-patient care settings. The researchers refer to a study in the UK, which revealed that lower staffing of RNs and high admission levels for every RN is linked to increased mortality risks during hospitalization. Besides, nursing assistants di not compensate for the lower staffing of RN. The study by Driscoll et al. (2018) found that a high nurse staffing level was linked to a lower mortality risk and nurse-sensitive outcomes during hospitalization.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Health Care Agency

The organization is a large regional hospital with a 700-bed capacity that serves a diverse population of more than 100,000 people. Although its healthcare workforce comprises of different healthcare professionals, nurses comprise the majority. The organization experiences a high nurse turnover, which has led to a persistent shortage of nursing staff.  As a result, the organization’s financial performance has deteriorated in the recent past, and nurses have high workloads. Besides, most patients have shared their dissatisfaction with service delivery, the omission of care, and long waiting times.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.

Nursing Practice

The leadership of a healthcare organization has a legal and ethical responsibility to ensure that patients receive efficient and quality care based on individual needs. According to Carnevale, Smith &Gulish (2015), organizational leadership can achieve these outcomes by ensuring adequate nurse staffing in healthcare organizations.  Increasing the number of employed nurses in healthcare organizations through good human resource management practices such as hiring new nurses, and promoting retention through better salaries, incentives, and awards. Both strategies directly influence lower nurse burnout levels, intention to leave practice, and job dissatisfaction (Johnson et al., 2016). It creates a positive work environment such as through recognition, reimbursements for continuous education, and development of nursing careers, which meets the basic needs of RNs. These outcomes influence higher revenues for healthcare organizations, reduces nurses turnover, workload, and increases patient and nurse satisfaction.Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.






Example of a complete PICOT statement:

In the Intensive Care Setting (POPULATION), does the implementation of a turn team (INTERVETION) vs. a traditional 2-hour turn led by the primary nurse (COMPARISON), decrease the incidence of pressure ulcers (OUTCOME) in a 6-month period (TIME).


Nursing Shortage: Literature Review Comparison.