Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.


Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice

How Alderfer’s ERG Theory satisfied the criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Clayton Alderfer’s existence, -relatedness, and growth (ERG)   theory of motivation states is built on the theory of the hierarchy of needs by Abraham Maslow. ERG  theory states individuals can be motivated by numerous levels of a need simultaneously, and that the level which of greatest significance to an individual can change over time.  Alderfer’s ERG theory modifies Maslow’s theory to make it simpler and respond to criticisms of the theory for its lack of empirical evidence.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. According to Daft and Marcic (2016), Aldefer’S theory identifies three groups of needs existence needs (the needs for an individual’s physical wellbeing, including pay, drink, and food), relatedness needs (the needs for satisfactory associations with other people, including colleagues, friends, and family) and growth needs (the needs that focus upon the development of an individual’s potential and the aspiration for a person’s increased competence and growth. Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.


Maslow’s needs hierarch and ERG model are the same since they are in a hierarchical form and assume that humans must fulfill low-order needs before moving to high-order needs.  Nevertheless, Alderfer  ERG theory lessens the groups of the needs that a person needs to meet three and suggested that there is more complexity in moving up the hierarchy, a reflection of a frustration-regression principle.  This implies that the inability of an individual to fulfill a high-order need might elicit a reverting back to a low-order need that has already been met.  Therefore, an employee who is unable to meet a personal growth need might regress to a low-order need and redirect his/her efforts to make more money.   Alderfer’s ERG model thus more flexible than Maslow’s model, and proposes that humans might go up as well as go down the hierarch,  which is determined by their capability to fulfill needs.   Alderfer does not place much emphasis on the hierarchical order on needs as Maslow.  Fulfillment of needs at one level might or might not result in experiencing needs at the next level, and more than a single set of needs might be operating simultaneously in a certain person (Daft &   Marcic, 2016) Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

McClelland’s 3-Needs Theory as it relates to a manager’s success in the workplace.

McClelland’s need theory states that each individual has its own drivers for motivation, the needs for power, affiliation, or achievement.   According to Rybnicek et al. (2019), the need for achievement refers to a liking for being excellent in accomplishments via a person’s efforts.  People with a high need for achievement demonstrate a stronger aspiration to carry out their duties at a greater advanced level compared to their colleagues.   The need for affiliation is defined as the concern for creating and sustaining close personal associations with other people. It is additionally represented by the aspiration to take part in interactive and cooperative activities.  The need for power refers to the concern for prestige and impact, which is connected to taking risks and attaining formal social power (Rybnicek et al., 2019).Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

In nursing, managers with a greater need for power take pleasure in being in charge and exerting influence on others. The need for power is of great significance because it is an indication of the aspiration of an individual to influence others. Leaders often acquire and utilize power to achieve certain goals, to reinforce their individual positions for attaining interpersonal influence. According to Jooste and Hamani (2017), the need for power is essential for the efficiency of leaders since it encourages them to take on influencing social behavior, which is needed for effective leadership. Power motivates individuals to become more satisfied with their experience of influencing other people.  This satisfaction maintains their interest in exercising leadership.  A manager who does not have power will not be capable of influencing staff adequately to accomplish the organizational goals.  Effective leaders have a greater need for power than the need for affiliation.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

Effective managers utilize their power in sustaining a healthy balance between their power and the power of employees. Jooste and Hamani (2017) indicate that McClelland’s theory argues that a certain pattern of motivation, which he brands leadership motivation, is essential for people to be effective managers. This pattern is typified by a greater need for power, socialized to achieve valuable goals, along with a low need for affiliation. Nurse managers who distinguish and utilize their power are more likely to accomplish personal as well as professional goals while helping nurses to fulfill their goals of providing superior care and advancing nursing education and practice.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

The types of reinforcements available to managers for changing an employee’s behavior

The behavior of an individual can be redirected via the utilization of reinforcement.  Skinner’s theory of reinforcement proposes that a worker will repeat a behavior if he or she is offered positive rewards but will not repeat the behavior if it will lead to negative consequences.  Reinforcement is a behaviorist approach, which alleges that reinforcement conditions behavior.  The types of reinforcements available to managers for changing the behavior of employees are negative, positive, extinction, and punishment. According to Borkowski and Meese (2020), positive reinforcement happens when a desirable result is connected with behavior. Desirable results can be symbolic and simple, like a certificate of accomplishment, or words of praise. Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. To fully appreciate the effect of positive reinforcement, managers are required to utilize it only when a staff demonstrates the desired behavior. For example, when operating rating turnover time decreases, the nurse manager can recognize the accomplishment of the team by lunch to thank the departmental employees or publishing the accomplishment in the hospitals’ newsletter. Negative reinforcement happens when an unwanted effect is avoided or eliminated, which, similarly to positive reinforcement, promotes an employee to repeatedly display positive behavior.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

There are two forms of punishment; both undesirable positive consequences and negative consequences.  A negative consequence is an unlikable response to the behavior of a worker in an effort to prevent the worker from repeating the behavior (Borkowski & Meese, 2020).   For example, the department’s manager can reprimand an operating room nurse who has the obligation of ordering supplies but fails order for a necessary surgical device making a surgical procedure to be canceled.  Due to this scolding,   the nurse will have the motivation to devise an inventory system for preventing the situation from again. Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

A positive consequence happens a thing that is derived by the employees is taken away For instance, when an operating room nurse fails to order the required surgical equipment, the manager of the department can require the nurse to update the inventory list with twenty-four hours, which will require the nurse to work on her off day.  According to Borkowski and Meese (2020), managers must be cautious concerning the administration of punishment reinforcements. Unless punishment reinforcements are done appropriately and carefully, the impact can lead to long-term consequences.  It can lead to staff resentment, hostility as well as turnover.  Borkowski and Meese (2020), indicate that managers must punish only behaviors that are undesirable and clearly state what amounted to the undesirable behavior r when talking about the situation with the worker. Managers should give disciple actions or reprimands as soon as possible following the occurrence of the behavior, not administer punishment in public, and if possible, use both positive and negative reinforcements.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.

Extinction refers to the removal of established negative or positive reinforcement that was already established for reinforcing the behavior of a worker.  This removal might weaken make the future behavior of an employee weaker (Borkowski and Meese, 2020).   For instance, if one of the operating departments of a hospital has a policy that if the surgical cases of the charge nurse begun and ended on time, the nurse will be given a 20 dollars gift certificate to a restaurant. This positive reinforcement can be eliminated by removing the gift certificate to make nurses responsible for ensuring that cases start and end on time.Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice.