Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

1. Discuss the concept of learned optimism and how it relates to coping with stress by individuals. 2. Describe how framing heuristics affect a manager\’s escalation of commitment. 3. Describe the five conflict-handling modes. 4. Explain the three conflict negotiation models and situations in which each would be appropriate.

Nursing Leadership

Optimism can be defined as a person’s difference variable that highlights the extent to which the individual perceives generalized favorable expectations for their future. Normally, higher levels of optimism have been associated with a better though subjective wellbeing particularly during difficulty or adversity (Reed, 2016). Therefore, it has been associated with higher levels of engagement coping as well as lower levels of disengagement, avoidance or coping. According to studies, there are two key conceptualizations of optimism, the explanatory style which emanates from Learned Helplessness Theory, and dispositional optimism which is perceived as part of an individual’s personality.Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

One way of measuring optimism is by asking people their expectations of outcomes in life to be good or bad. The approach is seen in the Life Orientation Test (LOT).  Researchers have used the feedback to analyze the relationship between optimism and stress.

According to research, higher levels of optimism are associated with a decrease in stress as well as depression. Therefore, optimism reflects resilience in people against adversity and stressful life events in people (Reed, 2016). One crucial process through which optimism leads to lower levels of stress is shown in how pessimists and optimists deal with stress. Typically, optimist tends to have an engaged view of life. Thus appraising difficult and stressful events positively and making use of more approach coping mechanisms, on the other hand, pessimists tend to have a disengaged approach and apply avoidance strategies. A meta-analysis of optimism and coping by Nes and Segerstorm reinforced this view (Reed, 2016). They discovered that optimism was linked with the positive application of wider measures of approach coping as well as problem-focused coping. As a result, the optimists become more receptive and responsive to any type of stressors they encountered.

Ideally, optimism can be learned. People can cultivate a positive perspective and approach to life. Consequently, the wellbeing of people becomes enhanced. Some of the benefits of optimism include improved health, increased motivation, and career success (Reed, 2016). It is important to note that optimism can be taught since optimism interventions can significantly improve an individual’s optimism.Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

Escalation of commitment especially to failing decision takes place in the presence of negative feedback that people are not meeting the expectations, sunk costs, and finally a decision occurring between escalation and de-escalation (Feldman & Wong, 2018). The framing effect is seen when our judgment and decisions are informed and influenced by the information given to us. Usually, equivalent information can either be more or less appealing based on the features highlighted. Therefore, all decisions made based on the framing effect are focused on how information is given rather than the information itself. As a result, the decisions may be sub-optimal since lesser options can be framed more positively. Similarly, they become more attractive than the other options. Also, the information can be better but if cast in a less favorable way, it becomes less appealing.

Since the processing of information can consume time and energy, our minds use shortcuts to shorten this process and make it efficient. These shortcuts are referred to as heuristics. Therefore, the presence of a heuristic tends to contribute to the framing effect (Feldman & Wong, 2018). According to studies, older adults tend to use the heuristic more due to limited cognitive resources. As a result, they favor information that is presented most easily. Therefore, any information framed in such a way is preferred more than others.Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

The framing effect tends to have both positive and negative impacts in our lives because it can impact our process of decision making by framing positive light on poorly presented information. For example, overvaluing how information is said or put can cause people to undervalue the specific information which in most cases is usually crucial (Feldman & Wong, 2018). Asa result one can choose worse options that are framed more effectively. Whenever a manager realizes that a previously chosen course of action is not performing as expected, they are usually faced with a dilemma. Therefore, they are required to pivot and channel the remaining resources in a more promising option or chose to remain persistent with the initial decision and hope that it pays off. In this case, heuristics can make a manager chose to stick to the initial investment since they feel they have invested too much to quit.

Conflict is inevitable. According to research, employers incur as much as one million dollars every year due to conflict. Despite it is inevitable, there are solutions to how it can be managed and mitigated. A conflict model developed by Thomas-Kilmann highlights that people think differently and deal with conflict differently (Smiley, 2018). However, it is possible to overcome such differences. Therefore, the model emphasizes the fact that everyone is different, there are different ways of handling conflict, one should learn their modes of handling conflict and it is important for people to learn other conflict styles and apply them. In the end, these steps reinforce the idea that people can learn how to deal with conflict, how other people handle it, and how to incorporate those ideas to effectively resolve conflict.


The first step in conflict resolution is understating that everyone is different. However, this can be the hardest thing to do since we always assume that everyone perceives things and life like us. Therefore, during conflict resolution, it crucial to decipher where the opposing viewpoint is emanating from (Smiley, 2018). In Thomas-Kilmann model suggests that there are five modes of conflict which include: Competing, accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, and compromising. Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

Essentially, the models vary in terms of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Essentially, the level of assertiveness during conflict handling represents a person’s determination in achieving their interests. On the other hand, cooperativeness shows how one is concerned with others’ needs and interests.

The competing model is the most assertive way of conflict handling. Normally, people who use this style are willing to go the extra mile to win an argument. On the other hand, accommodating conflict-handling mode is cooperative and least assertive (Smiley, 2018). Usually, people using this model tend to sacrifice their stance in pursuit of agreeing with other parties. It is a style propelled by self-sacrifice and by people who dislike conflict and are willing to sacrifice their stance and opinions to avoid an argument.

Avoiding conflict-handling mode is practiced when a person feels like they do not have a large stake or opinion in the conflict. This type of mode is neither assertive nor cooperative. By choosing not to take sides, the individual in the conflict tends to not pursue their interests or those of others involved in the conflict (Smiley, 2018). On the contrary, collaborating is when solutions are explored that will work for everyone. It holds both strong and assertive factors. It is characterized by discussions rather than arguments and looking for solutions that address all issues involved. Finally, compromising is similar to collaborating since it is both assertive and cooperative. It focuses on finding the middle ground by combining various ideas into one solution.Nursing Leadership Essay Sample

The outcome of a negotiation is determined by the model of negotiation employed. A first model is a win-win approach which is also known as collaborative and is focused on creating value. Essentially, the outcomes of it usually leave all the parties involved satisfied. For example establishing consortia to bid for tenders together (Hipel et al., 2020). Secondly, the win-lose approach is based on the ground that one person wins at the expense of the other. It is characterized by limited resources to be divided and as a result, one gets more while others get less. Also, one person’s interests tend to oppose the others. Ultimately, the goal is to maximize a person’s interests. It involves manipulation, forcing issues as well as withholding information.

An example of a win-lose situation is when a person in an organization seeks a promotion, reward, or authority by discrediting the reputation of others. Finally, the lose-lose strategy is realized when one negotiating partner feels threatened and as a result, they do all they can to ensure no one benefits from the outcome of the negotiation. In the end, all parties end up losing (Hipel et al., 2020). In this type of approach, the negotiating partners ignore each other’s needs and focus on hurting one another. A classic example is when two prisoners decide to confess to a crime to set up the other and they both end up serving a maximum sentence.Nursing Leadership Essay Sample


Feldman, G., & Wong, K. F. E. (2018).When action-inaction framing leads to higher escalation of commitment: A new inaction-effect perspective on the sunk-cost fallacy. Psychological science29(4), 537-548.

Hipel, K. W., Fang, L., & Kilgour, D. M. (2020). The graph model for conflict resolution: Reflections on three decades of development. Group Decision and Negotiation29(1), 11-60.

Reed, D. J. (2016).Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility. Psychology research and behavior management9, 71.

Smiley, F. (2018).Leadership Guide to Conflict and Conflict Management. Leadership in Healthcare and Public Health. Nursing Leadership Essay Sample