As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat patients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.
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For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on the concepts of foundational neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in prescribing medications for patients.
Post a response to each of the following:
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Thank you for your insightful post. I find the mechanisms of ligands fascinating. An allosteric binding is when a ligand binds in a site that is not the primary receptor site and the interaction increases or decreases the action of the agonist (Kowalski et al., 2017). An example of a positive allosteric modulation is when oxygen molecules bind to hemoglobin, in which oxygen is the substrate and the effector (Kowalski et al., 2017). An inverse agonist is similar to an antagonist in such that it binds with the receptor and the result is not what the endogenous ligand would produce but instead of being the opposite effect, the effect is muted (Khilnani & Khilnani, 2011). Antihistamines were categorized as antagonists but new research has shown they act as inverse agonists stabilizing the effects of histamine (Khilnani & Khilnani, 2011). In addition, several antipsychotic drugs (“D2 receptor antagonists”), such as clozapine, have shown inverse agonist properties as the mechanism of action in their therapeutic effects (Kowalski et al., 2017).
Khilnani, G., & Khilnani, A. (2011). Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(5), 492. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.84947
Kowalski, P. C., Dowben, J. S., & Keltner, N. L. (2017). My dad can beat your dad: Agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, and inverse agonists. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 53(2), 76–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12208