NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.
For this NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/
Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples. NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Week 5 main post
Diabetes (DM) is mainly a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Also, a decrease in insulin production leads to the disruption of proteins and lipids metabolism. The pancreas produces insulin and regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose gets into the cells and convert into energy. Symptoms of diabetes mainly result from a deficiency of insulin or cellular resistance to insulin. The principal sign of diabetes is sustained hyperglycemia, which results from impaired glucose uptake by cells and from increased glucose production. When hyperglycemia develop, it can quickly lead to polyuria, polydipsia, ketonuria, and weight loss. Hyperglycemia can lead to heart disease, renal failure, blindness, neuropathy, amputations, impotence, and stroke (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018). Diabetes is diagnosed by three blood test such as fasting plasma glucose test, hemoglobin A1C (HgbA1C), and oral two-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT). Fasting plasma glucose test measures blood glucose after 8-12 hours fast, if the levels is 126 mg/dl or higher, the patient diagnose with DM. HgbA1C measures blood glucose over the past three months. If the level is seven percent or higher. GTT measures blood glucose after an overnight fast after drinking a sweet solution containing a specific amount of glucose, and if the level is 200 mg/dl or higher, the patient diagnosed with DM (Basina, 2020).
Type I diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It mostly develops during childhood or adolescence and has an abrupt onset. It can also develop during adulthood. Type I diabetes destroys the pancreatic B cells. The role of pancreatic B cells is to synthesize insulin and release it into the bloodstream. Early in the disease, the patient has decreased insulin levels, but as the disease progresses, the patient has no insulin production. It caused by an autoimmune reaction and triggers by genetic, environmental, or an infection. It affects 5 percent of people with diabetes. Type II diabetes happens when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the body becomes resistant to the insulin produced. In type II diabetes, the pancreas produces more glucose for the cell to use. When the cells do not use the glucose produced, it accumulates in the bloodstream. The risk factors for type II diabetes are hereditary, overweight or obese, age 45 or older. Type diabetes can occur in children as well. Type diabetes affects 90 to 95 percent of people diagnosed with diabetes (Basina, 2020). Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy and mostly disappears after delivery. The placenta produces hormones that suppress the action of insulin and an increase in cortisol level, a hormone that produces insulin. If diabetes continues after pregnancy, it should be rediagnosed and treated accordingly (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018).
An oral antidiabetic agent can treat type II diabetes. As the disease progresses, the produce less insulin, and the patient may need insulin therapy. Second-Generation Sulfonylureas such as glimepiride (Amaryl), glipizide (Glucotrol), and glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase). These medications are used to decrease insulin resistance, increase glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissue, and decrease glucose production by the liver. These medications may be administered orally once or twice daily and can only use for type II diabetes. The side effects are usually hypoglycemia and weight gain. Hypoglycemia mostly occurs in patient with kidney or liver disease because Sulfonylureas are metabolizing by the liver and excrete by the kidneys (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018). However, if the patient develops hypoglycemia, it should be reported to the healthcare provider. The patient should monitor their blood glucose regularly. The patient has to avoids highly processes carbohydrates such as foods composed of white flour, white sugar, and white rice, sugary drinks, saturated and trans-fat fried foods, Red and processed meat. The patient may eat whole grain foods, brown rice, oatmeal, nonfat or low-fat dairy products, lean meats poultry fish, eggs, and dried beans, and peas. Patient diagnosed with DM may eat foods and drinks with no added sugar, fruits and non-starchy vegetable. In addition to eating a healthy diet, the patient has to exercise, and lose weight (Basina, 2020) NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments.
Type II Dm has short-term and long-term impact on patients. Short-term impact consist of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood glucose is too low. It is caused when patient eat less than usual after taking diabetic agents and if the patient exercises more than usual. Long-term impact of Type II DM includes nerve damage, kidney damage, eye problem, heart disease, stroke, sexual and bladder problems, and skin infections (WebMD, 2019).
Therefore, the role of the patient is to monitor the blood glucose level, eat a healthy diet, and exercise regularly. The patient must report blood glucose levels and have a log and bring it to their healthcare provider (HCP) on each visit. The patient must report any abnormally high and abnormally low results to the HCP. The HCP must monitor the effects of prescribed medication strictly and monitor HgbA1C level every three months to ensure that DM is well controlled. I believe that the management of diabetes is collaborating effort between the patient and the HCP. NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Basina, M. (2020). Everything you Need to Know about Diabetes. Retrieved from
Rosenthal L.D., & Burchum, J.R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice
providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
WebMD. (2019). Types of Diabetes Mellitus. Retrieved from
NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments response 1
I enjoy your post on DM Type 11 and saw some good strategies for patients’ short-term and long-term impact on goals Short-term impact consist of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood glucose is too low and may cause damage nerve damage, kidney damage, eye problem, heart disease, stroke, sexual and bladder problems, and skin although most people don’t think about the long-term effects and you can agree that Diabetes mellitus is currently considered as one of the most invaders diseases. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments. These changes called coping strategies. One of the biggest challenges for health care providers today is how to address the continued needs and demands of individuals with chronic illnesses like diabetes. According to Eman Salem AL-Khafaf. (2017). Some studies conclude that diabetic patients have good knowledge about their disease, but they have less coping strategies in their awareness about daily checking their blood sugar and checking their eyesight periodically (batemani et al.,2020). Do you think one of the first strategies is to assess the knowledge and possible coping strategies that diabetic patients may have.
Batmani, Y., & Khodakaramzadeh, S. (2020). Blood glucose concentration control for type 1 diabetic patients: a multiple-model strategy. IET Systems Biology, 14(1), 24–30. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1049/iet-syb.2018.5049.
Eman Salem AL-Khafaf. (2017). Knowledge and Coping Strategies among Diabetic Patients in AL-Wafa’a Centre in Mosul City. مجلة الموصل للتمريض, 5(2), 83–86. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.33899/mjn.2017.160057
Thank you for your informative post on the different forms of diabetes as well as treatments. I would like to add that there has been an increase in the number of young children developing type II diabetes (T2D). This is due to the raise of obesity, lack of activity, and excess consumption of process foods. In many other countries children are engaged in sensory education in eating perfectly normal things. Some European countries see taste lesson as a part of children development. According to Wilson, (2017), children as young as nursery schools are encouraged to explore food with all their senses. Studies have shown that at the end of a course of these lessons, a child will be more open to tasting a variety of foods, including vegetables, and less susceptible to the junky “kids’ foods” so heavily promoted in every supermarket (Wilson, 2017) Type I diabetes (T1D) is still a disease that affects many individuals. T1D population should be treated with multiple daily injections of prandial insulin and basal insulin or continuous insulin infusion (American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2018). Because these patients are no longer making insulin or making very small amount of insulin it’s essential that they are supplemented with rapid-acting insulin to reduce hypoglycemia risk (ADA, 2018). Adults who were T1D who has good results with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is recommended to continue with the same form of therapy after they turn 65 years of age (ADA, 2018) NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments.
American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes- 2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73-S85. Retrieved from https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/41/Supplement_1/S73.full.pdf
PLEASE SIR CAN WE HAVE SOME MORE? Childhood obesity and diabetes seem on an unstoppable rise, but can a new way of teaching children about food make all the difference? Bee Wilson enrols at Flavour School. (2017). Sunday Times (London, England). NURS 6521 Week 5 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments