NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay

NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay

Pharmacology Week 1Question 1A patient is treated with an antibiotic for an infection in his leg. After 2 days of taking the antibiotic, the patient calls the clinic and reports that he has a rash all over his body.


The nurse is aware that a rash can be an adverse effect of an antibiotic and can be either a biologic, chemical, or physiologic action of the drug, which is an example ofResponse Feedback:Pharmacodynamics is the biologic, chemical, and physiologic actions of a particular drug within the body and the study of how those actions occur, including adverse effects. It is how the drug affects the body. The pharmacodynamics of a drug is responsible for its therapeutic effects and sometimes its adverse effects. Pharmacotherapeutics refers to the desired, therapeutic effect of the drug. Pharmacokinetics is the changes that occur to the drug while it is inside the body. NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay  is the study of how genetic variables affect the pharmacodynamics of a drug in a specific patient. Question 2Which of the following statements best defines how a chemical becomes termed a drug?Response Feedback:Even though all the responses are correct, a chemical must undergo a series of tests to determine its therapeutic value and efficacy without severe toxicity or damaging properties before it is termed a drug. Test results are reported to the FDA, which may or may not give approval. Question 3A patient has been prescribed an oral drug that is known to have a high first-pass effect. Which of the following measures has the potential to increase the amount of the free drug that is available to body cells?Response Feedback:Unlike oral medications, drugs that are given intravenously do not initially pass through the liver. As a result, the first-pass effect is mitigated and more of the drug is available to cells. Frequent oral doses, low protein intake, and administration with food do not reduce the first-pass effect. Question 4The culture and sensitivity testing of a patient’s wound exudate indicates that a specific antibiotic is necessary for treatment. The United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary indicates that the drug in question is 96% protein bound. What are the implications of this fact?Response Feedback:A drug that is 96% protein bound has only 4% of ingested molecules free and active, a fact that is likely to necessitate a high dose of the drug. This does not result in rapid absorption and/or excretion and does not indicate a need for increased protein intake. Question 5A patient has been prescribed several drugs and fluids to be given intravenously. Before the nurse starts the intravenous administration, a priority assessment of the patient will be to note theResponse Feedback:Baseline body weight and height, heart rate, and blood pressure are all important considerations during the assessment of a patient. However, if a patient has to be given drugs intravenously, it is important to inspect the skin for rashes, moles, or sores, so those areas can be avoided as an insertion or injection site. Question 6A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment ofResponse Feedback:The incidence of hypertension is significantly higher among African-Americans than other ethnic groups. As well, African Americans respond to some antihypertensive drugs differently than whites. Question 7Talwin given in combination with Vistaril diminishes the adverse effects of nausea caused by the Talwin. This drug interaction affecting the pharmacodynamics of the Talwin isResponse Feedback:An antagonistic drug interaction results in a therapeutic effect that is less than the effect of either drug alone because the second drug either diminishes or cancels the effects of the first drug. An additive effect occurs when two or more “like” drugs are combined and the result is the sum of the drugs’ effects. A synergistic effect occurs when two or more “unlike” drugs are used together to produce a combined effect and the outcome is a drug effect greater than either drug’s activity alone. Potentiation is an interaction in which the effect of only one of the two drugs is increased. Question 8In response to a patient’s nausea, the nurse has mixed a dose of an antiemetic with 50 mL of sterile normal saline and will administer the dose by IV piggyback. What is the rationale for the use of IV piggyback?Response Feedback:When the patient receives continuous IV fluids and is also receiving intermittent IV drug therapy, the drug is normally given through a secondary IV tubing. When a secondary IV tubing is used to administer an IV drug, the tubing is added to the main line tubing, usually at a Y port. Adding secondary tubing is called “piggybacking” because the tubing with the drug rides on top of the primary fluid tubing. Failure to adhere to a prescribed regimen, unstable electrolyte levels, and need for continuous monitoring are not rationales for the use of an IV piggyback. Question 9The nurse is caring for a patient receiving an aminoglycoside (antibiotic) that can be nephrotoxic. Which of the following will alert the nurse that the patient may be experiencing nephrotoxicity?Response Feedback:Decreased urinary output, elevated blood urea nitrogen, increased serum creatinine, altered acid–base balance, and electrolyte imbalances can occur with nephrotoxicity. Ringing noise in the ears (tinnitus) is an indication of possible ototoxicity. Visual disturbances can suggest neurotoxicity, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice) is a sign of hepatotoxicity. Question 10A nurse is caring for a patient who has had part of her small intestine removed due to cancer. She has also now developed hypertension and has been prescribed a new medication to decrease her blood pressure. While planning the patient’s care, the nurse should consider a possible alteration in which of the following aspects of pharmacokinetics?Response Feedback:Because absorption takes place mostly in the small intestine, there could be possible alterations with this process. Distribution takes place in the blood vessels; metabolism in the liver; and elimination via the kidneys. Because these systems are not affected by her surgery, these phases of pharmacokinetics would not be altered. Question 115 ml = _______________tsp Question 12A patient who has been admitted to the hospital for a mastectomy has stated that she has experienced adverse drug effects at various times during her life. Which of the following strategies should the nurse prioritize in order to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects during the patient’s stay in the hospital?Response Feedback:In an effort to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects, it is necessary to closely monitor the patient. It would be inappropriate for the nurse to alter the route or frequency of administration or to encourage herbal remedies that also carry the potential for adverse effects. Question 13A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient’s medication regimen. Which of the patient’s medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?Response Feedback:Metabolism of many varied drugs such as calcium channel blockers (used to treat hypertension), statins (used to lower blood lipid levels), and antihistamines (used to prevent allergic reactions) is affected by grapefruit juice. Question 14In which of the following patients would a nurse expect to experience alterations in drug metabolism?Response Feedback:The liver is the most important site for drug metabolism. If the liver is not functioning effectively, as with cirrhosis, drugs will not be metabolized normally and toxic levels could develop. Drug dosage will have to be altered to ensure normal levels in the body. The patient with kidney stones and the patient in acute renal failure would most likely have alterations in drug excretion. If there are no complications with the cervical cancer patient, there should be no alterations in drug therapy. Question 15A patient with a recent diagnosis of acute renal failure has a long-standing seizure disorder which has been successfully controlled for several years with antiseizure medications. The nurse should recognize that the patient’s compromised renal function will likelyResponse Feedback:Impaired renal function will increase the half-life of drugs that are metabolized by the kidneys. This does not necessarily render such medications ineffective and it does not decrease the first-pass effect. IV administration will not compensate for the patient’s impaired renal function. Question 16A nurse is caring for a postsurgical patient who has small tortuous veins and had a difficult IV insertion. The patient is now receiving IV medications on a regular basis. What is the best nursing intervention to minimize the adverse effects of this drug therapy?Response Feedback:Because the patient has small tortuous veins and had a difficult IV insertion, the patient is at high risk for infiltration of the IV site.NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay  Recording baseline vital signs or blood sugar level is an important nursing action, but not specific to IV administration of any drug. The patient is not known to take anticoagulants; so unless indicated, the nurse is not required to monitor the patient’s bleeding time. Question 17An elderly postsurgical patient has developed postoperative pneumonia in the days following abdominal surgery and is being treated with a number of medications. Which of the following medications that the nurse will administer has the slowest absorption?Response Feedback:Absorption of drugs is dependent primarily on the route of administration. IV, IM, and sublingual administration results in faster absorption than drugs that are given orally. Question 18An unconscious patient has been brought to the hospital, and the physician has prescribed a life-saving drug to be administered parenterally. Which of the following methods would be the most appropriate for the nurse to use when administering the medication?Response Feedback:Intravenous infusion is the preferred method for use in emergency situations when rapid drug effects are desired. Absorption is considered to be instantaneous, as the drug is placed directly into the bloodstream. The subcutaneous and intramuscular routes could be used but would not ensure rapid drug effects. Intrathecal administration is usually done by a physician or a specially trained health care provider. Question 19The nurse’s assessment of a community-dwelling adult suggests that the client may have drug allergies that have not been previously documented. What statement by the client would confirm this?Response Feedback:True allergic reactions include formation of rash or hives, itching, redness, swelling, difficulty breathing, and anaphylactic shock. Nausea and vomiting, however, are adverse effects of drug therapy. Similarly, an unsafe drop in blood pressure and gastric bleeding from aspirin use are adverse drug effects, not allergic reactions. Question 20Tylenol 325 mg/tablet, patient needs 650 mg; how many tables should patient take? Question 21During a clinic visit, a patient complains of having frequent muscle cramps in her legs. The nurse’s assessment reveals that the patient has been taking over-the-counter laxatives for the past 7 years. The nurse informed the patient that prolonged use of laxativesResponse Feedback:Long-term intake of laxatives, antidepressants, and antibiotics has been found to deprive a person of most essential nutrients, such as vitamins. Prolonged use of laxatives is not known to turn urine acidic, cause urinary tract infections, counter the effect of other drugs, or inhibit the biotransformation of drugs. Question 22A patient who has ongoing pain issues has been prescribed meperidine (Demerol) IM. How should the nurse best administer this medication?Response Feedback:The ventrogluteal site is the preferred site for intramuscular injection. IM injections necessitate the use of a larger gauge needle than is required for subcutaneous injections. Question 23An older adult patient with a history of Alzheimer’s disease and numerous chronic health problems has been prescribed several medications during his current admission to hospital and recent declines in the patient’s cognition have impaired his ability to swallow pills. Which of the following medications may the nurse crush before administering them to this patient?Response Feedback:A tablet that is designed for immediate release into the gastric environment is normally safe to crush and administer to the patient. Enteric coated and sustained release tablets may not be crushed because doing so compromising the delayed release into the GI tract that is intended with these medications. Sublingual medications should be placed under the tongue to dissolve rather than swallowed. Question 24A nurse is discussing with a patient the efficacy of a drug that his physician has suggested, and he begin taking. Efficacy of a drug means which of the following?Response Feedback:Efficacy indicates how well a drug produces its desired effect. Different drugs have different strengths of attraction or affinity for receptor sites. A drug’s ability to stimulate its receptor is called its intrinsic activity, and the amount of a drug that must be given to produce a particular response is called the potency of a drug. Question 25A patient has been prescribed 1 mg lorazepam (Ativan) sublingual prior to the scheduled insertion of a peripherally inserted central (PIC) line. How should the nurse direct the patient when administering this medication?Response Feedback:Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue where they dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream. Swallowing the pill may render it less effective, but is not unsafe. It is not recommended to chew and hold sublingual medications nor to hold them in the mouth for length of time. Question 26A nurse is caring for a 92-year-old patient who is taking multiple drugs and displaying increased cognitive impairment and memory loss. The initial action of the nurse would be toResponse Feedback:The nurse must first carefully assess and distinguish between the normal signs and symptoms of aging and the adverse effects from drug therapy, which can mimic signs of aging. The nurse may need to consult with a pharmacist to determine if symptoms stem from adverse drug reactions or drug interactions before reporting to the prescriber for treatment. Medication would not be held because of possible life-threatening conditions, and a nurse should never take a “wait and see” approach. Question 27A community health nurse is performing a home visit to an elderly client who receives twice-weekly wound care. The client has mentioned that she has been having difficulty sleeping, a problem that she has not previously experienced. Which of the following measures should the nurse suggest?Response Feedback:Whenever possible, alternatives to drug therapy should be considered as the initial treatment for problems. For an older adult with sleep difficulties, for example, it is advisable to implement non-pharmacological interventions before medications. Question 28A 90-year-old frail, elderly woman has arrived at the emergency department with a broken hip and in acute respiratory distress. Succinylcholine will be used because of the need for rapid endotracheal intubation, and then the woman will be sent to surgery. Due to the woman’s frail condition, she is at risk for skin breakdown. Which of the following nursing diagnoses would be most appropriate?Response Feedback:The nursing diagnosis that directly relates to possible skin breakdown is Impaired Physical Mobility related to drug-induced paralysis. Patients who are unable to speak, move, or breathe unassisted can quickly develop pressure sores (decubitus ulcers). It is the responsibility of the nurse to help keep the patient positioned correctly to avoid skin breakdown. The nurse will plan interventions to prevent skin breakdown based on how long the patient will be immobilized. Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation is related to respiratory paralysis.


Fear is related to paralysis and helplessness, and Disturbed Sensory Perception is related to CNS depression secondary to drugs used during anesthesia. Question 29An 80-year-old man has been prescribed oxycodone for severe, noncancer, chronic pain. He tells the nurse that he has difficulty swallowing and asks if he can crush the tablet before swallowing. The nurse will advise the patient thatResponse Feedback:The nurse should caution the patient against crushing the tablet before ingesting it. Crushing allows an extremely high dose of the drug to be available all at once, instead of being released slowly over time. Severe adverse effects are possible when it is used in this manner. The other options are false statements. Question 30A 70-year-old man who enjoys good health began taking low-dose aspirin several months ago based on recommendations that he read in a magazine article. During the man’s most recent visit to his care provider, routine blood work was ordered and the results indicated an unprecedented rise in the man’s serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. How should a nurse best interpret these findings?Response Feedback:Damage to the kidneys is called nephrotoxicity. Decreased urinary output, elevated blood urea nitrogen, increased serum creatinine, altered acid-base balance, and electrolyte imbalances can all occur with kidney damage. Question 31Medication reconciliation of an 82-year-old man who has recently moved to a long-term care facility reveals that the man takes 1 to 2 mg of lorazepam bid prn. The nurse should recognize what consequence of this aspect of the resident’s drug regimen?Response Feedback:In a systematic review of medications as risk factors for fall, it was found that one of the main group of drugs associated with this risk were benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are not associated with cold intolerance, anorexia, or aggression. Question 32A 72-year-old man is taking Adderall XR for the treatment of narcolepsy. He is currently having problems with not being able to swallow large tablets or capsules. The man also wears dentures, which makes it even more difficult for him to swallow medication. He is in the clinic to talk to the nurse about his problem. The nurse will instruct him toResponse Feedback:The benefits of Adderall XR are its once-daily dosing, its longer duration of action, and its potential for sprinkle administration. For patients with difficulty swallowing, Adderall XR’s capsule may be opened and the beads sprinkled in applesauce. It is not advisable to suggest the use of an alternative drug. Patients should be told not to crush the beads after opening the capsule because this would alter drug absorption. Ingesting the capsule with 8 ounces of water will not solve the patient’s difficulty with swallowing. Question 33A nurse is administering drugs to a 70-year-old patient who has a reduced plasma albumin level. When assessing the patient for therapeutic outcomes of drug therapy, the nurse will also be careful to observe forResponse Feedback:Decreased levels of plasma albumin can lead to fewer binding sites for protein-binding drug molecules. Decreased binding sites results in higher concentrations of unbound forms of a drug, which increases the risk of adverse effects and toxicity and can increase therapeutic effects. Plasma albumin does not alter absorption of a drug but is responsible for binding, transporting, and distributing drugs throughout the body. Even though higher concentrations of a free drug increase the amount of the drug available for metabolism, normal age-related decreases in liver function offset any increase in the pharmacokinetic process. Question 34A nurse is caring for a 78-year-old patient with renal insufficiency and chronic heart failure who is receiving rapid infusions of high-dose furosemide. It will be a priority for the nurse to monitor forResponse Feedback:Ototoxicity can occur with rapid intravenous administration, especially in patients with poor renal function and in those receiving high doses of furosemide. Although usually transient, ototoxicity may result in permanent damage. Rapid infusions of high-dose furosemide would not place the patient at risk for hepatic encephalopathy. Excessive diuresis from furosemide can result in dehydration and vascular thrombosis, but they would not be the priority in this case. Question 35A nurse is caring for a 73-year-old man who is receiving drug therapy. He is beginning to exhibit signs of decline in his renal system, yet his current serum creatinine level is normal. The nurse will base the patient’s plan of care on the understanding that there isResponse Feedback:The patient’s creatinine level is within the normal range for his age. Less creatinine overall exists in the older adult because creatinine production declines as muscle mass decreases. The normal creatinine level can be misleading and should not be interpreted as an indication of normal renal function or effectiveness of the drug. Question 36Mr. Lacuna is an 83-year-old resident of a long-term care facility who has a diagnosis of moderate Alzheimer disease. Mr. Lacuna’s physician recently prescribed oral rivastigmine, but he was unable to tolerate the drug due to its gastrointestinal effects. As a result, he has been ordered the transdermal patch form of the medication. When administering this form of rivastigmine, the nurse shouldResponse Feedback:In patients with moderate dementia, it may be necessary to place the patch on the back where it cannot be removed in settings where a nurse will be reapplying the patch. A patient with moderate dementia would not normally self-manage medications. The dosage of rivastigmine is not increased during a short-term exacerbation of symptoms. Transdermal patches are never applied to mucous membranes. Question 37Mrs. Houston is a 78-year-old woman who resides in an assisted living facility. Her doctor prescribed digoxin at her last visit to the clinic and she has approached the nurse who makes regular visits to the assisted-living facility about this new drug. What teaching point should the nurse emphasize to Mrs. Houston?Response Feedback:Patients taking digoxin need to know the importance of having all laboratory work (serum drug levels; electrolytes) performed on time. Digoxin is not taken if the patient is bradycardic, and it does not provide an immediate or short-term increase in exercise tolerance.NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay  Blood pressure monitoring is not normally required for patients who are taking digoxin. Question 38A 79-year-old woman has been admitted to the hospital with a gastrointestinal bleed. She is currently receiving a transfusion of packed red blood cells as well as an infusion of pantoprazole (Protonix), a proton-pump inhibitor, to help stop her bleeding. What care setting is most appropriate for this patient?Response Feedback:Blood transfusions and continuous infusions of intravenous medications require the vigilant assessment and monitoring that can be provided in an acute care setting; this is not normally possible in an ARU or transitional care setting and would be impossible in an outpatient environment. Question 39A 77-year-old man with a long history of absence seizures has been treated with ethosuximide for many years. The man is now in the process of moving to a long-term care facility and a nurse is creating a plan of care. The nurse understands the potential adverse effects of this drug and would consequently prioritize which of the following nursing diagnoses?Response Feedback:Common adverse effects of ethosuximide are drowsiness, dizziness, and lethargy. Respiration, urinary function, and skin integrity are not normally affected by the use of ethosuximide. Question 40A 66-year-old woman has a complex medical history that includes poorly-controlled type 1 diabetes, renal failure as a result of diabetic nephropathy and chronic heart failure (CHF). Her care provider has recently added spironolactone (Aldactone) to the woman’s medication regimen. The nurse should consequently assess for signs and symptoms ofResponse Feedback:Spironolactone (Aldactone) and eplerenone (Inspra) are potassium-sparing diuretics, so their use increases serum potassium levels. Spironolactone is not known to contribute to dysrhythmias, leukocytosis, or thrombophlebitis NURS 6521 week 1 Assignments Essay