NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


1. Interview someone from another culture/ethnicity different than yourself. This should be a health related encounter between you as the nurse or health care leader and a client/patient.
3. Gather data related to cultural practices, diet, health beliefs & practices, religious/faith beliefs
4. Identify potential health issues for the person you have chosen
5. Discuss how the subject of your paper is not from the same culture as your own culture/ethnic background (I am a Caucasian female with a very reformed Jewish background .. I only celebrate the Jewish holiday’s with my family).NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


This is due by Saturday October 17, 2020 @ 11:59pm.

– detailed family and personal history. Exploration of cultural identity including social determinants (from Purnell). Complete life history line with major events indicated: birth, cultural identity, locations where lived, schools completed, relationships, occupations, marriages, etc. Literature section is strong with evidence based peer-reviewed references
– full use of Purnell model is evident; to assess diet, health beliefs, practices for physical health and spiritual wellbeing

– utilization of camphina-Bacote model to assess current health issues, what they have tried at home to treat the problem, what do they think is the problem and what do they expect from the health care provider?NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

– what are some of the similarities and differences between your own health culture, health beliefs and practices? (4 similarities and 3 differences discussed)

– correct APA format, spelling, grammar, punctuation and sentence structure

NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care

Cultural assessment in nursing is the foundation of cultural competence. According to Kaihlanen et al.(2019), cultural assessment and culturally oriented care allow nurses to acknowledge how the client’s culture influences their perceptions, values, beliefs, and overall health. The primary premise of cultural assessment is that clients have the right to their cultural perceptions, practices, and values, and these factors must be considered when delivering culturally competent care. In this essay, the author interviews a Hispanic male and gathers data related to their cultural practices, including diet, health, and religious beliefs, using the Purnell model of cultural competence and campinha-Bacote model as guides.  The essay also identifies potential health issues for the selected person and discusses how the subject is from a different cultural background than the author.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Full Use of Purnell Model to Obtain Client Data Related to Cultural Practices

Culturally competent healthcare providers develop an awareness of their existence and environment without letting these factors influence patient care. Purnell cultural competence theory is a significant model that health providers utilize to assess the client’s cultural needs. Here, providers use 12 domains to establish the cultural identity of the client. These are overview and heritage, family roles and organization, communication, death rituals, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behaviors, nutrition, pregnancy, spirituality, healthcare practices, and healthcare practitioners.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


The patient interviewed was a 39-year-old Hispanic male living in the United States.When describing his identity, the client prefers his family’s country of origin over pan-ethnic terms. He describes himself as a Mexican. He is currently separated from the wife, whom they have two children together, aged 15 and 9, respectively. The client works in a construction company characterized by job instability and inadequate pay. He feels that he lives below the poverty level and is often straining to provide for his family. The client was born in Mexico and has lived there until eleven years ago when he migrated to the United States in search of better opportunities. Economic inequalities, lower wages, and rural poverty were among the main factors that drove his migration to the United States. Concerning the client’s educational attainment, he revealed that he had completed high school, an aspect which could explain his low-skill occupation. According to the interviewed client, his way of life has been directly impacted by their social and economic position in the United States society.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


The client is a bilingual Spanish-English speaker. He notes that his country of origin heavily influences his cultural identity. His non-verbal communication is characterized by respect and formality.

Family Roles and Organization

His culture of origin also influences the client’s view of family roles and organization. Among Hispanics, families exhibit behaviors that are consistent with the family decline (Cabrera et al., 2019). At the same time, the client describes himself as family-oriented and states that he would do anything to provide for his children. The interviewee revealed that family systems in his culture are patriarchal, with men as prime protectors and mediators of hostility outside the family boundaries. Women are expected to show respect and submission to their husbands.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Death Rituals

Notably, the client’s cultural identity is also shaped by his beliefs on death and dying. Among Hispanics, death and dying reflect individual values, religion, and high regard for families (Brooten et al., 2016). Various Hispanic death rituals and ceremonies to honor the dead are deeply rooted in their culture. The client revealed that a critical end-of-life ritual provides support to family members who have lost their loved ones. They also desist the idea of placing dying individuals in nursing homes. Sick patients are cared for at home until they pass away with family members on their side. Anticipatory grief in front of terminally ill patients is also discouraged.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


According to research, most Hispanics do not adhere to the recommended dietary guidelines (Siega-Riz et al., 2019). The interviewed client revealed that his nutritional intake is characterized by sun-optimal consumption of fruits and vegetables and a higher intake of processed meats and sweetened drinks. Most Hispanics have become acculturated and adopted European food rituals. Food taboos are common among nursing mothers, who avoid legumes and some fruits during breastfeeding. When caring for the sick, traditional foods are encouraged.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Health Practices and Beliefs

The client revealed that he defines illness based on Hispanic culture, which asserts that diseases result from an imbalance between hot and cold states. Cold conditions include menstrual cramps, colic, pneumonia, and rhinitis. Hot diseases include diabetes, hypertension, and pregnancy. According to the client, hot diseases are treated using cold conditions and vice versa. Based on the client’s culture, folk illnesses are treated using traditional healers, which they use together with modern medicine. However, some Hispanics prefer to use home healers. Individuals are responsible for their health.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Spiritual Wellbeing

The client is a Roman Catholicandrelies heavily on prayers to cope during illnesses. His religious and spiritual influences play a significant role in the client’s health, illness, and daily activities. Among crucial religious rites observed by the client are anointing of the sick and baptism of infants.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


The client revealed that teen pregnancies are common in his culture. Among the client’s culture, pregnancy is considered a natural phenomenon, and women tend to seek antenatal care late in pregnancy. The extended family exerts a huge influence on pregnancy and childbirth.

Utilization of Campinha- Bacote Model to Assess the Client’s Current Health Issues

The model considers cultural competence as a process. Here, cultural competence is defined as the process where nurses attempt to embrace cultural diversity while caring for them. To assess the client heath issues, five components of the model are utilized. According to Albougami(2016), these arecultural awareness, cultural skills, cultural knowledge, cultural encounter, and cultural desire.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Cultural Awareness

Here, health professionals consciously acknowledge their cultural backgrounds, which in turn avoids bias and stereotyping other cultures.

Cultural Skills

Using this component, the healthcare provider could obtain information from the client in a culturally-appropriate manner. The interviewed client revealed that he has type 2 diabetes, which he believes that stress, dietary eating habits, and family worries were significant causative factors. He tries to control the condition at home by limiting sodium intake and often visits his primary care provider for treatment. The client revealed that he expects to be approached with respect and politeness from healthcare providers.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Cultural Knowledge

Cultural knowledge is a process where care providers open their minds to understand cultural variations related to sickness and health. Using this knowledge, the professional approached the interview with health conditions highly prevalent among the Hispanic population in mind. These include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, liver and kidney disease, and cancer. The client revealed that he has diabetes and identified ways in which he manages the condition. To avoid the above potential health issues, the client was encouraged to consume healthy diets and engage in physical exercises.

Cultural Encounter

Here, health professionals interact with members of different cultural backgrounds without bias and stereotyping. During the encounter with the Hispanic client, overdependence on conventional views was avoided.

Cultural Desire

Cultural desire is defined as the driving force to become educated, competent, and aware culturally. The healthcare professional had a transcultural willingness to provide care to patients of different cultural backgrounds.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

Similarities and Differences between the Author’s and the Interviewed Client’s Culture

The author is a Caucasian female with a very reformed Jewish background who only celebrates Jewish holidays with her family, while the interviewed client is a Hispanic male. Among the similarities of the two cultures are; the Caucasian and Hispanic cultures value family as a vital societal unit that supports illness, believe that individuals are responsible for their health,and consider religion and spirituality to have a significant impact on their health behavior. Another similarity between the two cultures is that both have a high prevalence of health conditions such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.

However, these two cultures are significantly different. Hispanics tend to highly invest in traditional healing as opposed to Caucasian Whites who invest more in contemporary medicine. Another health-related cultural difference between the two is that Hispanics experience numerous mental health barriers compared to whites (Sohn, 2016).  This is attributed to structural and economic factors. The last difference focuses on access to healthcare. Hispanics have limited access to healthcare compared to Caucasians, which is mostly owed to a lack of healthcare insurance.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.


In summary, the cultural assessment of the identified Hispanic male was heavily influenced by the Purnell model of cultural competence and the Campinha-Bacote model.Using these models, the author assessed the client’s 12 cultural domains and their impact on his health as well as current and potential health conditions. From the essay, it has been noted that cultural competence is vital for nurses interacting with patients from different cultural backgrounds. As a process, it improves communication, cultural awareness, and patient satisfaction.NURS 502 Policy, Advocacy & Legal Issues in Health Care Essay.