NUR 641E WK1 DQ1 Paper

NUR 641E WK1 DQ1 Paper

Part 1

What are the differences between primary and secondary line of defense? What factors interfere with these mechanisms? How are these levels of immunity affected in a child, an elderly person, or a person with a chronic disease? Include active, passive, innate, and acquired immunity. NUR 641E WK1 DQ1 Paper

The primary defense comprises of chemicals and physical barriers such as tears, skin, cilia, mucus, urine, and stomach acid that protect the body after getting contacts with an antigen for the first time (Miller & Palenik, 2018). Secondary protection involves non-specific resistance, such as macrophages, phagocytic cells, and suppressor T cells that react with the immune system when it contacts an antigen for the second or subsequent times.  However, such mechanisms are interfered with by the body’s natural mechanism to protect, although they are not limited according to age matters. Thus, a newborn might have an underdeveloped immune system, while the elderly might have an impaired immune system that is weakened according to the age factor. In this case, autoimmune disorders may alter the mechanism, along with malnutrition, this may lead the body into a protein deficit state that will suppress the body immunity.


Part 2

Choose an inflammatory or infectious process and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Choose a medical condition different from that of your fellow students. NUR 641E WK1 DQ1 Paper

An allergic condition is an inflammatory process that alters the immune system of the body when exposed to an allergen (Marshall, et al., 2018). The body’s immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody that binds acting as a white blood cell into the bloodstream. In early allergic exposure, the pathophysiologic reaction responds immediately after the allergen is exposed to the body’s immune system and inflammatory mediators that comprise significant quantities of histamine are directly released from mast cells on the mucosal surfaces. Also, histamine causes rapid bronchospasm and bronchoconstriction. This narrows the bronchioles in the case of an allergic patient. It is essential, to give allergic patient education in order to detect early the signs and symptoms of food-induced to allergic reactions. Thus, the patient will be aware of food supplements that bring the condition and how to manage the condition.


Miller, C. H., & Palenik, C. J. (2018). Infection control and management of hazardous materials for the dental team. Mosby.

Marshall, J. S., Warrington, R., Watson, W., & Kim, H. L. (2018). An introduction to immunology and immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(2), 1-10.NUR 641E WK1 DQ1 Paper