NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health care needs of an individual and provide personalized care.

Write a paper on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.

Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.

Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.

Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.

You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Lopes Write. Refer to the Lopes Write Technical Support articles for assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:



2.1: Incorporate liberal arts and science studies into nursing knowledge.

3.1 Utilize the nursing process to provide safe and effective care for patients across the life span.

Nursing Process: Approach to Care


The nursing process, which is a problem-solving approach to the detection and treatment of patients’ problems, offers a framework for helping patients and families to attain optimal functioning levels. The nursing process directs the actions of nurses in everyday professional practice and provides a structure that is consistent with a patient’s individual needs.   The paper discusses cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process.

The diagnosis and staging of cancer

The diagnosis of cancer involves an attempt to make an accurate identification of the anatomical site where the malignancy originated and the cell type involved. Cancer can originate from any tissue or organ in the body except teeth, hair, and fingernails. According to Compton (2020), cancer can be detected by screening populations who are at risk of developing cancer, incidentally when performing an examination for some other medical conditions or during a clinical workup after symptoms have started manifesting themselves and impelled the individual to look for medical attention.NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

Staging is the process of describing the spread or extent of cancer from the site of origin. It is the way a doctor establishes the stage of an individual’s cancer. The three crucial elements considered in establishing the cancer stage are tumor (T) nodes (N) and metastasis (M).   According to Kurch (2018). , the staging system permits physicians to predict the general course of the development of cancer.   After a physician utilizes tools such as sonograms and x-rays to see cancer within the boy of a patient, the letters T, N, and M are assigned a coded letter or number, which make it simpler to understand the development of cancer. For instance, Tis implies a tumor is in situ or on the skin’s surface. The physician would utilize this information and establish that the tumor can be removed by surgery.  In contrast, T4 implies that the tumor is big and has metastasized deep into the tissue, and it is much harder to treat.

Complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects

While numerous cancer patients diagnosed with and treated for early-stage disease outlives the disease, they might continue experiencing long-term complications due to cancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity, neuropathy, and cognitive dysfunction are three complications of cancer. According to Gegechkori et al. (2017), some types of chemotherapy and radiation are connected with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular complications including thromboembolic disorders, valvular disease, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias, and. hypertension. Some of these complications may occur twenty years after cancer treatment.  Regarding neuropathy, approximately 58 percent of patients from recover from cancer suffer from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN).  Around 48 percent of breast cancer survivors experience at least one neurological complication such as CIPN, neuropathic pain, cognitive decline, and phantom breast syndrome. Cognitive function impairment such as difficulties with memory, executive function, and concentration are reported in about 35 percent of breast cancer survivors following treatment. Cognitive impairment is a phenomenon attributable to several factors and is associated with anesthesia during surgery, hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy (Gegechkori et al., 2017).

Potential side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy include pain, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, joint pain, skin rashes, and weight gain. Some side effects such as cancer-related fatigue can negatively impatiens the overall quality of life years after cancer treatment. Additionally,   psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety are considerably elevated following cancer treatments (Cotterill, et al., 2016).  Physical exercise can enhance the psychological and physical wellbeing and health of cancer patients and lessen the burden of cancer treatment side effects and optimize the health of cancer patients/ survivors. Cotterill,  et al. (2016) indicate that physical activity interventions following cancer treatment significantly enhance the quality of life and lessen or reduce the risk of side effects of numerous treatment side effects such as weight gain, lymphoedema, and heart and bone problems.

Factors that contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans

Smoking, physical exercise and diet, and the use of established screening tests are factors that contribute to the annual incidence and mortality rates of several cancers in Americans. According to Siegel (2020), patterns of cancer incidence reflect behavioral trends associated with the risk of developing cancer and transformations in medical practice, like the utilization of cancer screening tests. For instance, there was a rapid decline in the overall rates of cancer incidence in males from 2007-2014, which is attributable to an increased prostate-specific antigen testing among males who were not screened before.

The overall rate of cancer incidence in females has remained stable over the last decades since declines in lung cancer have been counterbalanced by a narrowing decline for colorectal cancer and stable or increasing rates of other common cancer types.  According to Siegel (2020),  the slight increase in the incidence rates of breast cancer (by around 0.3 percent annually) since 2004 is partly attributable to continual declines in fertility rate and increased obesity, factors that might also contribute to the continual rise in uterine corpus cancer incidence rate(1.3 percent annually from 2007-2016). Incidence rates of lung cancer continue declining twice as fast in males as in females, a reflection of historical disparities in tobacco uptake and cessation, and also the upturn in the prevalence of smoking in females in some age groups (Siegel, 2020). NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

Cancer mortality increased most of the twentieth century, principally due to a swift increase in deaths from lung cancer among males because of the tobacco epidemic. Nevertheless, declines in smoking along with improvements in early cancer screening and treatment, have led to a continued decline in the rate of cancer deaths (Siegel, 2010).

How the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support

ACS assists cancer patients through their cancer experiences by providing emotional support, social services, prostheses and wigs,  support groups,  transportation, lodgings, and educational resources. According to ACS (2020), giving patients and caregivers information on cancer is the top priority of ACS. The organization has information on its website and individuals can also call the helpline to ask questions related to cancer. Additionally, ACS publishes several patient education pamphlets and brochures, professional journals, and books to assist patients, health care professionals, and families.

I would recommend patient education services because education is paramount for cancer management and treatment. According to Changizi et al. (2016), knowledge of causes of cancer and interventions for management and prevention of the illness can lead to a decline in suffering from the disease. Studies have shown that the occurrence of cancer is directly related to a person’s lifestyle and lifestyle a more significant role than other factors in the occurrence of common cancers.  As such, it is essential to correct the knowledge, attitudes, lifestyle, and beliefs of individuals. Health education is the most effective method for the creation of health behavior and change of lifestyle to prevent and control cancer.


How the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span

The nursing process is a problem-solving approach to the detection and treatment of the problems of patients. The nursing process offers a framework for helping patients and families to attain optimal functioning levels.  The nursing process involves five phases namely;  assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation(Charnay-Sonnek  & Murphy,  2019).In the assessment phase, testing modalities such as patient’s radiological imaging and pathologically studying the tumor mass will provide key information. Also, the nurse assesses the presence and symptoms of cancer through comprehensive. The clinician also finds out about the duration, severity, and nature of the patient’s symptoms through questioning.  Compton (2020) indicates that symptoms cannot be measured or detected by a clinician, and their documentation depends on what the patient reports.

In the diagnosis phase, the clinician obtains background information by interviewing the patient on his/her personal medical history relevant to his or her cancer risk factors such as immune or chronic inflammatory diseases, obesity, previous cancer,  oncogenic viral infection, or behaviors such as alcohol intake and smoking(Charnay-Sonnek  & Murphy,  2019).   In the planning phase, the nurse determines the stage of how cancer is spread in the body to know its severity and determine the most appropriate treatment options.  Cancer staging enables the clinician to discover several other opportunities that might assist with treatment, such as alternative and complementary therapies. The clinician then designs an appropriate care plan.

In the intervention phase, the clinician implements evidence-based nursing interventions (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy), and documents the care provided.

In the evaluation phase, the clinician evaluates the effectiveness of the nursing intervention in addressing nursing diagnosis.  When completing an evaluation, the nurse establishes whether the elimination/ reduction of the tumor has occurred and the side effects of the treatment.  If the provided cancer treatment does not yield positive results, the nurse goes back to the initial phase of assessment.NRS 410V Nursing Process Research

How undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process.

The liberal arts and sciences act as an integral component of the education discipline within the nursing curriculum and are deemed to provide support to capabilities of creativity, critical thinking, and holistic care.  Science having been plating a more integral role in nursing education, over time, regardless of the recognized significance and contribution of liberal arts.  The humanities are a fundamental portion of liberal arts education. Liberal arts improving the skills of nursing students to communicate, navigate diversity, think globally, and make decisions, and thus liberal arts and humanities must be included in nursing pedagogy.  When proving care to patients with multifaceted economic, spiritual, psychosocial, and medical issues, the capability to distinguish between what is real amid a range of contending issues, and recognizing how to solve problems, are critical skills (Kooken & Kerr, 2018).


ACS. (2020). How We’re Providing Support.

Changizi, M., Ahmadljouybari, T., & Kaveh, M. H. (2016). The role of health education in cancer prevention: A systematic review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 8(4), 24082-24099.

Charnay-Sonnek, F., & Murphy, A. E. (2019). Principles of Nursing in Oncology: New Challenges. Springer.

Compton, C. T. (2020). Cancer: the Enemy from within: a Comprehensive Textbook of Cancer’s Causes, Complexities and Consequences.  Springer Nature

Cotterill, S., Weston, N., & Breslin, G. (2016). Sport and Exercise Psychology: Practitioner Case Studies.  John Wiley & Sons.

Gegechkori, N., Haines, L., & Lin, J. J. (2017). Long Term and Latent Side Effects of Specific Cancer Types. Medical Clinics of North America, 101(6), 1053-1073. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2017.06.003

Kooken, W. C., & Kerr, N. (2018). Blending the liberal arts and nursing: Creating a portrait for the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(1), 60-64.

Kurch, P. (2018). Skin Cancer: America’s Most Common Cancer. Greenhaven Publishing LLC.

Siegel, R. L. (2020). Cancer statistics, 2020. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 70(1), 7-30.

NRS 410V Nursing Process Research