There are many factors that have influenced the development of psychopathology. Genomic research and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium have identified hundreds of common and rare genetic variations that contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Behavioral genetic research provides evidence for heritable influence on diagnosis such as anxiety and depressive disorders across the life span (Patterson, Mann, Grotzinger, Tackett, Tucker-Drob & Harden, 2018). Evolving conceptualizations of psychopathology and neuroscience have transitioned focus from symptom-based diagnoses to a greater emphasis on transdiagnostic commonalities (Jackson & Milberg, 2018). The important overall point of a neuroscientific perspective is that analyses of normal or abnormal function need to be informed by an understanding of the brain structures and processes that implement the function (Jackson & Milber, 2018). Different changes in the brain can be affected by treatments available. There are different treatment modalities that can occur dependent on diagnosis. Advanced research diagnostic imaging such as SPECT, PET, MRI show specific responses to different treatments. Many aspects of culture, such as cultural principles, affect the way people perceive and react (Hassim & Wagner, 2013). The emphasis on cultures in mental health is reflected in the extent to which psychiatric diagnoses and practices are based on views of mental disorders. Cultural values and perspectives derive the views of mental health, and to the extent of treatments that are provided.
Hassim, J., & Wagner, C. (2013). Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 19(1), 4–10. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v19i1.400
Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000064-004
Patterson, M. W., Mann, F. D., Grotzinger, A. D., Tackett, J. L., Tucker-Drob, E. M., & Harden, K. P. (2018). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Internalizing Psychopathology across Age and Pubertal Development. Developmental Psychology, 54(10), 1928–1939.
Thank you for your post. I enjoyed reading the information you provided. Practicing with a multidimensional approach will be crucial because many different dynamics play into mental illness and disorders. As you mentioned, genetics plays a huge part in who we are and what disorders or illnesses are inherited. Lebowitz and Appelbaum (2019) explained that mental disorders could be conceptualized as manifestations of genetics and neurobiological abnormalities. In addition to genetics, there are many other factors such as biological, cultural, social experience, beliefs or traits, and interpersonal factors that influence psychopathology. As expressed by the Developmental Systems Theory, during development, individuals are emerged in many different interactions among changing systems within and outside them that shape the individual into who they are (Masten et al., 2018). Many factors play into an individual’s mental disorder, and it is essential the advanced nurse practitioner understand and explore each factor, whether biological, developmental, social, or cultural. Each interaction with an influencing factor may directly or indirectly shape or influence the client’s course of life. To help clients achieve successful outcomes, the provider must acknowledge, identify, and respect the factors that have influenced the client’s life.
Lebowitz, M. S., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2019). Biomedical explanations of psychopathology and their implications for attitudes and beliefs about mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 15(1), 555–577. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095416
Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher, P. C. Kendall, J. N. Butcher (Ed), & P. C. Kendall (Ed) (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000065-002
Discussion: Factors That Influence the Development of PsychopathologyIn many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken. An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).
Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?
Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology.
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