Musculoskeletal, Multi system and Metabolic Health Dysfunctions

Musculoskeletal, Multi system and Metabolic Health Dysfunctions

1. Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multi system health dysfunctions. Explain what symptoms are associated with the findings and how these affect patient function. 2. Explain the risk factors for osteoporosis. What can a nurse do to help manage this health condition to restore the patient to optimal health? Musculoskeletal, Multi system and Metabolic Health Dysfunctions

Metabolic health dysfunctions include metabolic abnormalities of insulin resistance, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities involves acquired and genetic factors that lead to the pathway of inflammation resulting in cardiovascular disease. Risk factors include excessive intake of high calories and lack of physical activities (Rochlani et al, 2017). Visceral adiposity is the major trigger of pathways involved in metabolic health dysfunctions. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and neurohormonal activation are the main mechanisms to the development of metabolic health dysfunctions. Key symptoms of metabolic syndrome include large waist circumference and when the level of blood sugar is high the patient may have signs of diabetes such as frequent urination, fatigue, increased thirst, and blurred vision (Rochlani et al, 2017). Since risk factors to the condition include excessive intake of high calories and lack of physical activities, reducing calorie intake and increasing physical exercises can reduce the risk of the condition.


Pathophysiological changes associated with musculoskeletal health dysfunctions include discomfort such as pain, tiredness, muscle weakness, stiffness, numbness and sensory loss, movement limitation, joint noises, reduced range of motion, and elevated heat because of inflammation (Collions et al, 2018). In musculoskeletal health dysfunctions, there is an incongruity between the external load because of the physical exertion, posture, along with the ability of the body to withstand the load (Collions et al, 2018).

The pathophysiology of multisystem health dysfunction involves the interaction of physiological aspects that include infection, tissue ischemia, injury as well as treatments used to ensure organ function. During multisystem health dysfunction various cellular and humoral cascades are activated (Berg & Gerlach, 2018). Effective management of multisystem health dysfunction involves controlling and treating the underlying disease process. Multisystem health dysfunction may present as organ dysfunction in terms of acute kidney injury, GIT dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, acute respiratory distress, and encephalopathy (Berg & Gerlach, 2018).

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis

Risk factors for osteoporosis include being a female, old age because with aging bones become weaker and lose density, a family history of osteoporosis, a history of fracture, having light and thin bones, menopause because with age levels of estrogen reduce making bones to lose density, and being a Latino, white or Asian ((Pouresmaeili et al, 2018). The modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis include lack of physical activity, smoking, weight loss, insufficient nutritional absorption, calcium and vitamin D deficiency, alcohol intake, stress, and air pollution (Pouresmaeili et al, 2018). Musculoskeletal, Multi system and Metabolic Health Dysfunctions

To manage osteoporosis, a nurse should first educate the patient to understand the condition and the treatment regimen. This education will focus on interventions to slow or arrest the condition and on strategies to relieve the symptoms. In addition, the patient will be educated about how to relieve pain, for example, sleeping on a firm mattress and encouraging good posture and training on body mechanics. The patient should also be educated on intake of food rich in calcium and vitamin D to protect against skeletal demineralization as well as intake of high fluids and rich dietary fiber to prevent constipation (Pouresmaeili et al, 2018). The patient will also be encouraged to exercise regularly and sop intake of alcohol, carbonated drinks, caffeine, and smoke cessation as well.


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Collins K, Walter H, Graham M, Reimer R, Rios J, Smith I & Hart D. (2018). Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity. Front Physiol. 9(112).

Pouresmaeili F, Behnam K, Kamarehei M & Gosh Y. (2018). A comprehensive overview of osteoporosis and its risk factors. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 1(14), 2029–2049.

Rochlani Y, Naga V, Swathi K & Mehta J. (2017). Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 11(8), 215–225.

Musculoskeletal, Multi system and Metabolic Health Dysfunctions