Infection and Drug Resistance Essay

Infection and Drug Resistance Essay


Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) include infections acquired by patients when receiving healthcare. HCAs are also defined as infections that initially appear 48-hours or more following a hospital admission or within 30 days after having being administered with health care (Haque et al., 2018). Evidence shows that HCAIs are among the most common causes of adverse events that affect hospitalized patients. Examples of hospital-acquired infections include ventilator-acquired pneumonia, surgical site infections, sepsis, and Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Infection and Drug Resistance Essay. Evidence indicates that HCAIs are among the ten leading causes of death within the United States while about 1.7 million admitted patients acquire HCAIs annually while under treatment for different health issues (Haque et al., 2018).

Community-acquired infections refer to infections contracted outside a hospital or infections diagnosed within 48-hours of hospitalization without any preceding healthcare encounter (Corrêa et al., 2018). Examples of community-acquired infections include community-acquired pneumonia, conjunctivitis, enterovirus, coronavirus, staphylococcus aureus, influenza, strep throat, viral meningitis, among other infections.

Iatrogenic infections refer to the infections that a patient acquires after treatment, medical or surgical management, or even a medical error or negligence regardless of where the patient was hospitalized or not (Peer & Shabir, 2018). For example, a patient may acquire a surgical site infection after surgery while another patient may acquire iatrogenic effects such as hemolytic anemia, vomiting, nausea, lymphedema, brain damage, or diabetes insipidus after an aggressive treatment such as chemotherapy. An adverse drug reaction such as hepatic damage is also an iatrogenic effect. Another example of an iatrogenic effect is an immunological reaction or non-immunological reaction after blood transfusion. Infection and Drug Resistance Essay.



Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Abu Bakar, M. (2018). Healthcare-associated infections – an overview. Infection and drug resistance, 11, 2321–2333.

Corrêa, R. A., Costa, A. N., Lundgren, F., Michelin, L., Figueiredo, M. R., Holanda, M., Gomes, M., Teixeira, P., Martins, R., Silva, R., Athanazio, R. A., Silva, R., & Pereira, M. C. (2018). 2018 recommendations for the management of community acquired pneumonia. Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia, 44(5), 405–423.

Peer, R. F., & Shabir, N. (2018). Iatrogenesis: A review on nature, extent, and distribution of healthcare hazards. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 7(2), 309–314. Infection and Drug Resistance Essay.