Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.



There are times that a country is faced with a short in skilled human resource. This shortage has been the leading causal factor in increasing the number of expatriates. However, this is for s temporary basis.[1]Although there is the need to allow skilled foreigner into Australia to help curb the shortage of skilled labour, it is essential that this is done through the implementation of correct laws and the creation of policies that provide for a useful framework that the government can monitor the admission of skilled foreign foreigners.[2] Jacob Hassan possesses impeccable skills in the world of engineering and would like to realize his hydrogen fuel for cars ambition.


However, due to the strained relationship between Britain and other European countries following the Brexit exit, Jacob approaches David Meyer an Australian Businessman to help him get to Australia in order to achieve his dream. This letter seeks to advise the parties on the various ways that would enable Jacob Hassan to get a visa to Australia so as to work on his cut-edge project.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

 Legal Framework

The Rules, Policies, and Laws

According to the Immigration Act 1958 section 30 states the types of visas that one can apply for when seeking to visit Australia. Subsection 2 allows for one to apply for a visa that enables them to visit Australia on a temporary basis with the aim of carrying out an activity or until the end of an event. This is the subsection that allows applying for a visa in order to carry out a business venture.[3]

Section 41 of the Immigration Act allows the government to restrict the kind of activity that the holder of the visa is to undertake depending on the class of the visa. For instance, if Jacob Hassan would like to achieve his dream of creating a new form of energy he should apply for the visa class that enables him to work in Australia. However, Jacobs’s application must meet conditions set out under the Temporary Skilled Subclass 482 Visa.[4]It could be difficult for an employer to find a skilled Australian citizen to help him execute the mandate of his company; thus, the creation of the TSSV. The TSS Visa serves will enable Innovative Technology and Engineering to employ Jacob Hassan who has a vast knowledge in engineering that may help grow the Australian economy. However, it is essential to note that priority is given to Australian workers. Most of the times, TSS Visa leads to permanent residency.[5]

Jacob’s Eligibility Medium Temporary Skilled Subclass 482 Visa

This visa will grant Jacob the liberty to stay, work, and study in Australia. The validity will enable you to travel to and from Australia at any given time. Through Medium TSS visa ones stay in Australia is only limited to four years.[6]

Since most employers would appreciate the input of a skilled worker, this visa allows for sponsors to recruit competent non-Australian citizens subject to the requirements set out under the occupations list and that the relevant individual has at least two years’ experience in the said field. The TSS visa outlines requirements that have to be met for one to qualify as a skilled foreign worker in Australia. These requirements include:

  1. The worker’s occupation must be listed under the Medium and Long-term Strategic Skills List. Jacob Hassan being a petroleum engineer, he matches the descriptions of the jobs listed according to the Medium and Long-Term Strategic Skills List (MLTSSL). This is a list which comprises of occupations that allow one to apply for a medium-term TSS that last for four years and may be enhanced to permanency.[7]
  2. The applicant must be able to undertake the IELTS 5 test and score no less than 5. This to verify that the applicant can speak fluent English at all times as this is the official and popular language in Australia. However, there are exemptions to this requirement as will be discussed.[8] Jacob, despite being of Iraqi descent he has managed to gain the citizenship of Britain making him a British citizen. Jacob has lived in Britain since 2007, meaning that he is now fully able to speak English with high proficiency as he has worked and held prestigious positions as an engineer working for Jaguar. Therefore, Jacob is exempted from the English proficiency test as dictated by the TSS 482.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  3. The applicant must have at least two years of experience in the area of speciality. Hassan started working with Jaguar since 2015. The four-year experience satisfies the minimum requirement of 2 years of working experience according to the MLTSSL visa requirements. Moreover, the work experience falls within the five-year gap needed when calculating the age experience, according to TSS 482. It is mandated by law that once Jacob has acquired his visa, his work should be within the job he was nominated for as that is the reason for the visa granted failure to which he will be held liable for the breach of the Migration Amendment (Reform of Employer Sanctions) Act 2013.[9]

Whether Jacob is Eligible for Global Temporary Visa Australia?

This is an Australian government program launched on 1 July 2018. This program just like the TSS visa serves to invite brilliant business minds to come and work in Australia. Jacob Hassan could for this scheme and audition his talent. Sic Jacob Hassan’s idea-based fuel for cars is unique he stands a better chance of qualifying for the start upstream. Through this Innovation Technology and Engineering as an accredited sponsor may employ Jacob for his cutting-edge skills in petroleum engineering. This must be done in line with the TSS 482 visa. Hassan’s idea is alien to many and falls under Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) category which is a basic requirement for Jacob to be granted a Global Temporary Visa Australia.[10]

Whether David Meyer Can Sponsor Jacob Hassan through ITE?

Recruitment of skilled labour remains one of the most fundamental and challenging tasks that an employer could ever face. David Myer is defined as a local businessman and the head of ITE based in East Melbourne, Australia. David has shown a clear interest in the ideas propagated by Jacob and as promised to help sponsor him to Australia so Jacob could realize his project.  However, for David to be successful in his intentions, he needs to observe the requirements set out by TSS 482. Australia allows for the movement of skilled workers from one state to the other according to the World Trade Organization General Agreement on Trade in Services 1994 (WTO GATS)[11]

  1. David Meyer owns a company related to Innovative Technology and Engineering (ITE). It is mandatory that ITE gets the nod as an approved business sponsor. Since ITE is based in Australia, most of its business is carried out within Australia thus it could be termed as a standard business. After the approval of the sponsorship by the department of home affairs, a nomination has to be put up matching the qualifications of Jacob Hassan. The nomination of the position you would like to be filled by the 482 visas. The occupation you would like to be filled must fall under the recommended categories such as the Medium and Long-Term Strategic Skills List (MLTSSL).[12]
  2. ITE must ensure that before seeking the expertise of a Jacob Hassan, a local resident and citizen must have been sought without success. It is highly recommended that ITE carry out Labour Market Testing unless it is dictated otherwise by International Trade Obligation.[13] If Jacob was a citizen of Canada or New Zealand then ITE would have enjoyed the exemption of LMT. It is required that ITE must show the Department of Home Affairs that Jacob Hassan is the best fit for the job description and no Australian can fill up the position.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay. To meet this requirement, ITE most run an advertisement on the government’s website and one of the leading job websites. The advertisement should run for 28 days. On the expiry of the 28 days, you only have four months to put up a nomination for the important position you would like filled.[14]
  3. Once the nomination is done, David should inform Jacob to fill in the application form since he meets the standards necessary for one to be work on a Medium Long-Term Skilled Subclass. The nominated position must be full time, and genuine. If Jacob Hassan is successful for the nomination and it appointed it a dictate of the law that he works strictly according to the job description that granted him the TSS 482 Visa failure to which both ITE and Jacob Hassan shall be deemed to have breached the terms of the visa under Migration Amendment (Reform of Employer Sanctions) Act 2013.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  4. the payment of Nomination Contribution Training must be done depending on the turnover of your business. If your business has a turnover of more or less than $10 Million annually, you are to pay a fee of $1,800 and $1,200 per year, respectively. [15]
  5. ITE must adhere to the primary and minimum requirements when it comes to paying Jacob as the government strives to ensure that foreigners are not exploited when it comes to getting paid cheap wages while working for extra hours.[16] The government of Australia through the Fair Work Act of 2009 recommends that Jacob Hassan be at a rate that is similar to that of Australian citizens and residents. The government has gone ahead to instruct that the foreigners be paid just as Australian citizens and permanent residents are paid. Every employer is encouraged to pay the foreign workers a minimum of AUD 250,000 per year. Similarly, if there exist no comparable rates for which Jacob Hassan may be paid, ITE may rely on to pay the worker, the employer is at liberty to consult other instruments such as modern employment awards that may help in giving an estimate of what he ought to be paid to the worker.
  6. It is a requirement the ITE be able to pay the Nomination Contribution Training according to the annual turnover. If your business has a turnover of more or less than $10 Million annually, you are to pay a fee of $1,800 and $1,200 per year, respectively.


Since the introduction of the TSS visa 482 as an improvement of 457 Visa, a comprehensive framework based on the law, regulations, and policies that have made it easier to sponsor skilled foreign workers to come and work in Australia to build the economy. Jacob Hassan has two options for which he could freely pick from so as to facilitate his travel to Australia to work on his project. Firstly, Jacob Hassan could apply for the Temporary Skilled Shortage 482 visa, which will grant him a period of four years to work on his project and can be enhanced to permanency after three years. Also, Jacob could explore the Global Talent Visa option which is STEM-oriented; that is, fits which his career as he is a fully-fledged engineer. The Global Temporary Visa sets up an avenue where Jacob Hassan would showcase his unique ideas so as to secure the sponsorship of an innovative company. Moreover, David Meyer through Innovation Technology and Engineering could sponsor Jacob Hassan by following the processes stipulated in the Temporary Skilled Subclass 482 Visa. This involves the nomination of Jacob to fill the position that describes his qualification. Also, ITE may take part in theGlobal Temporary Visa and select Jacob Hassan as a beneficiary of their sponsorship program.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


Books/ Articles

Cañas, Kathryn A and Harris Sondak, Opportunities And Challenges Of Workplace Diversity (Pearson, 2014)

Hawthorne, Lesleyanne, “A Comparison Of Skilled Migration Policy: Australia, Canada And New Zealand” [2014] SSRN Electronic Journal


Migration Amendment Act (Skilling Australians Fund) Bill 2017

Migration (Skilling Australians Funds) Charges Bill 2017

Migration Agents Regulation 1998 No. 53 of 1998

Migration Act 1958 No. 62 of 1958

Fair Work Act 2009 No. 28 of 2009

Legislative Instruments Act of 2003 (LIA)

Migrations Amendment (Temporary Sponsored Visas) Act 2013

Tendering and Performance of Building Work 2016 (Code)

Migration Amendment (Reform of Employer Sanctions) Act2013

The Global Talent Scheme (2018)

World Trade Organization General Agreement on Trade in Services 1994

Migration Amendment (Reform of Employer Sanctions) Act 2013

Migration Legislation Amendment (Temporary Skill Shortage Visa and Complementary Reforms) Regulations 2018

Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth) No. 268 of 1994

Migration Amendment (New Skilled Regional Visas) Regulations 2019

[1]Kathryn A Canas and Harris Sondak, Opportunities And Challenges of Workplace Diversity (Perason, 2014)

[2]Lesleyanne Hawthorne, “A Comparison Of Skilled Migration Policy: Australia, Canada And New Zealand” [2014] SSRN Electronic Journal.

[3]Immigration Act 1958 s30

[4]Migration Amendment (New Skilled Regional Visas) Regulations 2019


[6]Repealed Migration Legislation Amendment (Temporary Skill Shortage Visa and Complementary Reforms) Regulations 2018

[7] Regulation 1.03 of Migration Regulations 1994

[8]See explanatory on Migration Act 1958 and Migration Agents Regulation 1998

[9] Migration Amendment (Reform of Employer Sanctions) Act2013

[10] See; The Global Talent Scheme (2018) Retrieved from

[11] World Trade Organization General Agreement on Trade in Services 1994


[13] 1840GBA(2) Migration Act 1958, read with s44 of the Legislative Act of 2003 and the Migrations Amendment (Temporary Sponsored Visas) Act 2013

[14] s11F of Code for the Tendering and Performance of Building Work 2016(Code)

[15] Migration Amendment Act (Skilling Australians Fund) Bill 2017 and Migration (Skilling Australians Funds) Charges Bill 2017)

[16] Fair Work Act of 2009



P.O BOX, 14428,




21ST MAY 2018




Dear Sir,


I am writing this letter as an immigration agency consultant to advice you on the legal requirements of applying for a Temporary Skills Shortage Visa (Subclass 482). The letter has detailed the legal requirements for both the applicant and the employer. The letter further proceeds to describe the steps of application from the first step to the last step as explained below;


Temporary Skills shortage Visa (subclass 482) abbreviated as ‘TSS visa’ is a type of visa available to working people who have agreed to be employed in Australia for special expertise. This type of visa is applicable to foreigners from overseas countries who want to be employed in Australia under a specific occupations listed on the occupation list. TSS visa was introduced in March 2018 by the Department of Home Affairs pursuant to legislative amendments introduced by The Migration Legislation Amendment (Temporary Skill Shortage Visa and complementary reforms) Regulations 2018

TSS visa was introduced to replace Temporary Work visa (subclass 457) due to a lot of integrity issues surrounding subclass 457 at the time.[1] There was an amendment introduced under schedule 1 of the Migration Regulations 1994.  The main aim of introducing TSS visa was to enable Australian employers or business organisations genuinely outsource the missing skilled labour outside the country to meet its labour shortage.[2]  Before an application for a TSS visa is finalized, both the employer and the visa applicant have to meet legal requirements provided for by the DHA.[3]

Categories of TSS Visa

The first general criterion required is that is that the person to be recruited must have the relevant expertise under the job listed on the occupation list depending on the TSS visa term. TSS visa is categorized into three major classes or term streams. There is the short, medium and labour agreement stream. An applicant will know the stream applicable to him or her by making a reference to the Consolidated Skilled Occupation List (CSOL).

  1. Short Term Stream

Where by virtue of your occupation you happen to fall under the short term stream, your TSS visa will be approved for a maximum period of two years before it expires. Short term stream is relevant where the employers requires the employee to only work on temporary basis and return back to his country upon the completion of the job. The occupation applied for must have been listed on the Short Term Skilled Occupation List (STSOL). Employment under short-term stream can only be extended to four years under exceptional circumstances for instance where an International Obligation (ITO) is applicable under the specific contract of employment signed with the employer. The cost of application is AUD 1,175 with a processing period of 33 days where applications are 75% or duration of 67 days for applications that are 90%.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  • Medium term stream

Employees falling under medium term by nature of their occupation will have their visa approved for a maximum period of four years before expiry. The applicant’s occupation must be falling under the Medium and Long-term Strategic Skills List (MLTSSL). Alternatively one can also qualify for medium term stream where his occupation is listed on the Regional Occupation List (ROL). The processing cost for medium term stream TSS Visa is AUD 2,455. The processing period is 22 days for applications that are within 75% and 62 days for applications that are 90%.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  • Labour agreement stream

Labour agreement stream applies to categories of skilled employees with unique expertise not found in Australia who has negotiated a permanent employment contract with an option of permanently residing in Australia.[4] The employer must sign a labour agreement with the Department of home affairs hence the name Labour agreement stream. TSS Visa of this type allows the employees some flexibility to fly outside the country and back several times so long as the visa is still valid. The maximum stay period is four years though this could vary depending on the labour agreement signed. The cost of processing amounts to AUD 2,455. The processing period is 32 days for 75% of applications and 78 days for applications falling under 90%.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

It is therefore very important for David to check all the three term streams occupations lists so as to ascertain the term stream that they will apply the cost of application and the duration as discussed below. The next step is ensuring that Jacob who is the visa applicant qualifies for the application under the eligibility test. David as the employer and sponsor is also required to pass an eligibility test must meeting the employer requirements. TSS Visa is a new subclass of visa introduced in 2018 hence its requirements are provided by DHA conditions on its website. The above mentioned amending legislation only repeals and inserts some new words in the schedule 2 of the Migration Regulation 2009 which provides for the previous subclass 457 that was replaced in 2018. The substantive provisions on legal requirements for both the applicant and the employer are provided for under the DHA website.  The General eligibility requirements for both the applicant and the employer are discussed in the subheadings below as stated under the DHA website.

General eligibility requirements for the applicant

The applicant must apply under a specific occupation listed on the CSOL whereby he or she must have the relevant skills, qualifications and expertise under that occupation listed. It is a requirement that the applicant must have been selected for recruitment by an Australian employer or Organisation to fill the gap or shortage in terms of expertise that cannot be found in Australia. The applicant must have worked in the same field previously for two years hence having a two years working experience. It is a requirement that the person to be recruited must be able to converse in English fluently without any difficulties.

The DHA requires that the applicant must have met its requirements for good health and character. Where the applicant is already in Australia at the time of making the TSS visa application, he or she must be a holder of a substantive visa or an alternative of a bridging visa type A,B or C. he or she must have adhered to the conditions of the visa he already has before applying for a TSS visa. TSS visa is silent on age requirement since most of the people who have acquired have expertise qualifications have legal capacity in terms of age since most of them have attained the age of majority in their country of origin.[5]

In this particular case scenario, Jacob is the applicant. He is out of the country at the moment since he works in the United Kingdom. Jacob is expected to meet most of the above requirements before he can apply for a TSS visa to come to Australia and transform his idea of making cars use water by removing O from H2O hence converting water into pure Hydrogen for purposes of fueling the cars.

General requirements for the employer

In most cases employers are the ones who play the sponsorship role to enable the foreign nationals who are skilled get TSS visa so that they can work for them. Before such sponsorship and successful approval for TSS visa is accepted by the Immigration department or DHA, the employer must meet the following requirements;

The employer must be running and operating a legal business carried out lawfully under all the relevant laws applicable. The business should not be facing any impending illegality. The employer is expected not to have any harmful, unfavourable or disadvantageous information that is likely to cause adverse effects to the business. It is a requirement that the employer must have nominated a genuine and full time position of employment to the foreign worker before arranging for such application.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Where it is a requirement for the employer to provide a labour market testing, he must do so before arranging to have foreign national employed under his business. The employers must have met all the conditions required for remuneration and specified working conditions form the employment relations sector. Upon qualifying all this criteria, David can then proceed to arrange for the sponsorship of Jacob to come work under his company to fulfill his ambitious project

Procedure for applying TSS visa (Subclass 482)

The process is procedural and done step by step. The first process is to check whether your occupation is listed on CSOL and the TSS stream that you fall under as an applicant. The second step is to ensure all the requirements for both the employer and employee are met and fulfilled DHA conditions and immigration department conditions. Upon application, the applicant is assessed on ability of English language. The applicant is also directed to make arrangements for a health insurance cover for the whole period he will be working in Australia. The applicant is also assessed on good character and health requirements for visa applicants.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

The third step is to have a sponsor who is your employer. The employer is required to fill and complete an online sponsorship application arranged by the DHA. Finding a sponsor is one of the most important steps since he is the one offering the employment position by nominating the applicant and without him the applicant cannot complete the application.  Both the application for the TSS visa and the online application for sponsorship can be lodged concurrently to avoid time consumption. The applicant is supposed to wait for the DHA decision patiently since the process is a bit time consuming. The earliest the decision can be made is after a period of 11 to 18 days upon completion of the processing duration which varies according to each term stream of a TSS visa.

Upon the application being approved, the applicant will receive his or her TSS visa and report to work in accordance with the employment contract. Jacob and David will have to go through the process together until it is successful since each person has a role to play. After Jacob has received the TSS visa is when he will be allowed to travel from United Kingdom and settle in Australia for his ambitious project that he wants to undertake working under David’s company.


The Migration Legislation Amendment (Temporary Skill Shortage Visa and complementary reforms) Regulations 2018

Migration Regulations 1994, schedule 1, part 1 as amended in 2018 to provide all the requirements for the TSS visa

Independent Review into Integrity in the Subclass 457 program report 2014

Productivity commission Inquiry Report on Migrant intake into Australia 2016

Senate inquiry into a national disgrace: The exploitation of temporary work visa holders 2016

Australian Government, Department of Home Affairs; Temporary Skill Shortage Visa (Subclass 482);

The above advice has stated most of the requirements and procedures for getting a TSS Visa. For more information in terms of lodging the applications you are required to visit the Department of Home Affairs for specific directions. I hope the advice given above will be of great help to you as you endevour to employ Jacob in your company.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Thank you

Yours sincerely,

James Cooper.


Hence, ti can be seen from the above simulations with 20 restarts that the sum of row probabilities are not equal to 1. Only, the sum is closest to 1 (1.1581) when the initial distribution is

Hence, if the sum of probabilities in the initial distribution is equal to 1 then the final probabilities after simulation of Markov chain will be equal to 1.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


Now, distribution is stationary as the sum of the probabilities of initial distribution is not equal to 1 and the equation for being stationary distribution is not satisfied. The equation for stationary distribution is


A 42-year-old indigenous Australian male, named Reggie, residing near Blackall in Central Queensland, married with three children and the sole worker of his family, came with acute decompensation of heart failure. In this essay, we report a case of an adult man categorising it into two priority problems, for which we will discuss further interventions. The problems discussed in detail will be Pulmonary Edema and Venous Thromboembolism. Pulmonary edema will be managed by administration of Furosemide and Intra-aortic balloon pumping. Interventions in Venous Thromboembolism will be anti-coagulant therapy and the use of graduated compression stockings. In treating this critical case, the nurse has a significant role in monitoring and clinical reasoning to ensure improvement in Reggie’s health. The aforementioned interventions will help reduce edema of the alveoli, increasing cardiac output by reducing blood pressure, resolving stasis and promoting blood flow in the legs, which will lead to the healing of edema in the legs, which will cause a general improvement in the condition of the patient that threatens his life.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


The patient presented with pain on inspiration. When examined, he had a high systolic blood pressure of 184, increased respiratory rate of 28 breaths per minute and coarse crackling sound on auscultation. Pulmonary Edema is a condition in which there is an accumulation of fluid in the parenchyma and the alveoli of the lungs. “It is due to either failure of the left ventricle of the heart to remove blood adequately from the pulmonary circulation, or an injury to the lung parenchyma or vasculature of the lung” (Arrigo, Parissis, Akiyama & Mebazaa, 2016; Thompson, Chambers & Liu, 2017). Hence, in this case, it would be known as Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema, because Reggie is a patient of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure which is the rapid deterioration of earlier heart failure. The pathophysiology is best understood by the neuro-humoral pathway. “In the presence of cardiac dysfunction, several neuro-humoral pathways, including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the arginine-vasopressin system, are activated to counter the negative effects of HF on oxygen delivery to the peripheral tissues. Neuro-humoral activation in HF leads to impaired regulation of sodium excretion through the kidneys which result in sodium and, secondarily, fluid accumulation” (Njist et al., 2015; Arrigo et al., 2016).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

It is essential in Pulmonary Edema for the nurse to diagnose and start the treatment as early as possible in order to avoid any grave results. The most important intervention here is the administration of a diuretic, preferably loop diuretic, Furosemide. This is a Dependant (physician initiated) intervention. Responsibilities that a nurse has in the whole administration process of this drug are to “Monitor the urine output as well as other vital signs. Watch for a drop in blood pressure. If your patient is on a cardiac monitor, watch for any arrhythmias that could be caused by a shift in electrolytes. Monitor labwork: watch for changes in the BUN and Creatinine and also potassium and other electrolytes” (Wilson, 2017). It is important to listen to the heart and lung sounds since the patient has heart failure. In case multiple doses are being administered, the nurse should be careful to note any signs of dehydration and stop or decrease the drug immediately. It is also necessary for the nurse to make sure that a bathroom is nearby for the patient to go to whenever needed. If a urinary catheter is placed, he/she should make sure that does not leak or become kinked and also clean around the area in order to prevent any infection (Wilson, 2017). Furosemide helps relieve edema by increasing the output of urine. “Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease” (Still, Davis, Chilipko, Jenkosol & Norwood, 2013). Therefore, Furosemide will alleviate edema in the alveoli by acting on the kidney and increasing the output of urine, causing recovery and prevention of the pulmonary edematous condition that was causing Reggie to have coarse crackles, high systolic pressure and pain on inspiration. “Furosemide reduces preload by diuresis in 20-60 minutes” (Sovari, 2017).

The advantages of this intervention include reduction of edema, and drop in high blood pressure, which would further prevent strokes, heart attacks and kidney problems. (WebMD) The disadvantages of this drug intervention comprise of dizziness, headache, vision problems, dehydration, muscle cramps, itching/rash, stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, jaundice, and clay coloured stools. There are several adverse effects of the drug that are caused by its interaction with other drugs such as Sucralfate, Cyclosporine, various antibiotics, cardiac and hypertension medications, laxatives, salicylates, etc  (Lasix Oral, n.d.). A lactating mother should avoid it as it has the ability to pass into breast milk. It is also reported to delay the production of breast milk (Cunha, 2018).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) is aggressive form care in cardiogenic shock patients. “Regardless of the cause, when the cardiogenic shock is recognised in the early stages, the IABP may decrease the high mortality rate significantly” (Cunha, 2018). It is a collaborative intervention. “An intra-aortic balloon pump is a short-term catheter solution to help the heart pump blood. IABPs are used to increase blood flow through the coronary arteries and reduce the heart’s workload by decreasing the afterload” (Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump, n.d.). The patient’s femoral artery is where the IABP, which is a pumping chamber, is inserted from. It is then passed into the abdominal aorta ultimately reaching the descending thoracic aorta. At the start of diastole, the balloon inflates, while the aortic valve closes, to expand the coronary artery. As the aortic valve opens again, deflation occurs. Therefore, the workload of the left ventricle is consequently decreased as there is a reduction in the intra-aortic fluid volume. It is important to note that the balloon should inflate at the accurate time in the cycle.  The nurse must have all the facts and information about the intervention so as to direct patients to the normal cardiac status. The patients should be given a thorough neurologic examination, to make sure they are aware of their orientation. It is the nurse’s responsibility to help the patient comprehend every aspect of his treatment. Inappropriate conversations should be made away from the patient where he is not able to hear them. The nurse should keep the incisions clean and dry. To aid the patient in turning, coughing and deep-breathing is imperative to prevent any complications. To avoid the risk of thrombus formation, all the pulses must be taken at every hour, along with the temperature. This intervention is suitable for the patient because it can increase the oxygen perfusion of the myocardial tissue and cardiac output by 40%. This intervention will assist in the reduction of pulmonary edema that is caused by the inability of the heart to pump blood, backing up of blood and increase in blood pressure. “IABP is the most frequently used and has saved countless patients with advanced heart disease over the past 50 years” (Jiang et al., 2017).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Intra-aortic balloon pumping is imperative to assist cardiac function in heart failure patients. It is also used as a temporary procedure for anyone waiting for a transplant. “Various studies have shown that as many as a quarter of patients may encounter bleeding at the IABP’s access site” (Senecal, 2015). A Ruptured aorta is a very serious complication of the procedure. There could be an occlusion of the femoral artery (where the catheter is inserted) causing blockage of blood flow to other parts of the body. Hematomas could form under the groin skin. There is also kidney failure reported as a complication of this procedure from a few patients (Senecal, 2015). “Major vascular complications, including limb and mesenteric ischemia as well as bleeding and hemorrhage, have been associated with IABP” (de Jong et al., 2017).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Types of evaluation data comprise of Primary sources, and Secondary sources. The edema in the patient’s lungs was greatly reduced. An absence of coarse crackles on auscultation was noticed. Breath sounds were normal. He stopped experiencing any pain on inspiration.

The patient presented with fatigue and weight gain. When examined, bilateral pitting edema of both legs was seen. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) consists of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (Yu-Fen et al., 2018). It is the formation of a blood clot deep in the legs (DVT) which travels and embeds in the lungs, forming pulmonary embolism (Uhlig et al., 2016). The three conditions inclining towards VTE are Hypercoagulability, Stasis and Endothelial damage (Lasix Oral, n.d.). In this case, it occurs due to stasis of blood which is a factor of heart failure.

The major intervention in a patient with the risk of VTE is the management with Heparin and Warfarin as VTE Prophylaxis. These are anticoagulant agents. It is an independent nursing intervention. “Anticoagulant therapy prevents further clot deposition and allows the patient’s natural fibrinolytic mechanisms to lyse the existing clot” (De Palo, 2019).  Moderate-risk patients (40-60 years) are ought to be given Heparin, preferably low-dose unfractionated heparin or low molecular-weight heparin (De Palo, 2019). A nurse should have a comprehensive knowledge of the condition to be able to perform efficiently in its prevention. “Lack of knowledge about VTE is an important barrier to effective nursing performance” (Yu-Fen et al., 2018).

As important is the administration of the drugs is, monitoring of the patient holds equal importance. It is essential to monitor a patient that is being given heparin prophylaxis to look for any signs of VTE in addition to bleeding and thrombocytopenia which are the side effects of the drug. Signs include pain, tenderness, edema and discolouration of the lower limbs (Senecal, 2015). This intervention is appropriate for the patient because since he shows signs of edema in his legs, this drug will help resolve the stasis causing the blood flow to move in its proper direction, which would lead to the reduction of the edema, diminishing any risk of DVT or PE.

Heparin has a short half-life allowing easy dose adjustments and an immediate effect. Moreover, it is a natural agent. It causes magnificent effects on the clotting cascade. Warfarin has a longer half-life and exceptional bioavailability, as it works for a longer period of time (Brown, Wilkerson & Love, 2015). Bleeding (thrombocytopenia), Bruising or bluish discolouration of the skin and mild itching of the feet can be seen as side effects (Unfried, 2017).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Graduated compression stockings are special stockings that endorse blood flow in legs. It is an Independent intervention. “It also demonstrated that GCS probably reduce the risk of developing DVT in the thighs (proximal DVT, moderate-quality evidence) and PE (low-quality evidence)” (Sachdeva, Dalton & Lees, 2018). They work by compression therapy to decrease venous pressure and prevent venous disorders like edema, phlebitis, and thrombosis. “By squeezing the leg tissues and walls of the veins, compression stockings can help blood in the veins return to the heart. They can also improve the flow of the fluid (called lymph) that bathes the cells in the legs” (Barone, 2016). The nurse’s responsibilities in this intervention are to assess the size of the stockings properly with a measuring tape, to educate the patient about the pros and cons of it. The nurse should also remember to remove the stockings and examine the patient’s skin after every 12 hours (Wade, Paton & Woolacott, 2017). “Graduated compression stockings exert the greatest degree of compression at the ankle, and the level of compression gradually decreases up the garment” (Lim & Davies, 2014). It is appropriate for the patient because it works by decreasing the diameter of distended veins and increasing the velocity of venous blood flow and maintaining valve efficacy. This intervention will resolve the oedematous condition of the legs of the patient while preventing VTE.

Their advantages include the fact that they are a conservative method of treating venous disorders. They decrease pain and discomfort associated with the underlying venous disorder. They also aid in the reduction of bruising and clot formation (Webb, Walter, Overby, Hall & Griffin, 2019). They may cause skin irritation if they are worn for long periods of time (Nall, 2018).


After these interventions, the patient was active, and the previously noted exhaustion was gone. Bilateral pitting edema of legs was managed, and the swelling was diminished to a great degree. The patient also lost significant weight.

Since the patient was in a serious condition of acute decompensated heart failure presenting with symptoms that directed towards the risk of pulmonary edema and venous thromboembolism, it was imperative to use interventions whose benefits outweigh the risks. They included: administration of Furosemide, insertion of Intra-aortic balloon pump, administration of Heparin and Warfarin, and provision of graduated compression stockings (Still et al., 2013). These interventions aided in the reduction of edema from the alveoli, increasing the cardiac output by reduction of blood pressure, resolution of stasis, and promotion of blood flow in the legs leading to the cure of edema in legs, causing an overall improvement in the patient’s life-threatening condition

Guided questions Answer Template (Please do not Remove the questions)

Guided Question Qualitative Study Quantitative Study
Aim andSignificance (5 marks 200 words)
a. What was the aimand significance ofthe study?
Methods (10 marks 700 words)
a. Identify the research design used in the study and was it appropriate for the issue discussed?
b. Discuss the sampling technique, inclusion and exclusion criteria used for the selection of sample in the study
c.Explore the data collection method and its appropriateness to the research design of the study
Data analysis and results (10 marks 600 words)
a.How was the data analysed and was it appropriate for the study? Data was analysed parallel with the interviews, After every interview the data was coded independently and the codes were compared and analysed for creating  coding tree. The consensus meetings and the codings were performed recurrently for the first 15 interviews. The coding for the remaining 5 interviews was divided with one author reviewing and the other coding. Sorting and analysis of test fragments was done as per the identified themes. . In this study, data was analysed through Statistic Package for Social Sciences version 20. Descriptive statistics was applied on the data collected from online survey to identify the logical responses and missing data.  The strength of association between the three variables (medication errors, safe medication practice and workplace relationships) was investigated using frequency distribution and spearman’s correlation (SC). SC is a technique implemented to evaluate the direction and strength of a relationship between the two or three variable factors (Shuttleworth, 2018). In this study SC found that unsupportive workplace relationships are inversely associated with medication errors and erosion of safe medication practices. It was appropriate for the study for targeting a particular section of people, assessing their opinions and genuine views of genuine cross section of the nurses, and finding correlation between the three.
b.What were the findings/results of the study? 20 Nurses were approached and three themes were analysed namely: Nurses role and responsibilities in medication safety, nurses’ ability to work in safe practices and their acceptance of safe practices. The factors affecting the nurses ability to work safely were identified as awareness of the risk of medication errors and the circumstances in which the nurse work. The result of the study was: An increase in disruptive nurse and physician behaviour ruins the safety of medication among the graduate nurses. Study identified the importance of disruptive nurse behaviour in eroding the safe medication practices.
c.Discuss the limitations and recommendations of the study? The findings of the qualitative study could be transferrable and may be relevant to other healthcare settings as well. The factors like work pressure and dependency of others might influence the practice environment of the settings which might impact the nurses role to perform the essential functions. Ethical approval was also not considered necessary for the study. The study recommends that the role of nurses should be supported by evidence based safety practices. The safety principles should be addressed by the nursing managers to develop a  professional practice environment with consistent professional development. The participants were recent graduates who were contacted through emails. It is possible that they did not access their email accounts. Another limitation was convenient sample, shortage of information on non responders and use of self report. The self reported data could be inaccurate and the sample of respondents’ population may not reflect the people under study.


Conceptual Framework


This report reflects the key understanding on the conceptual framework of the organization and how it has been strengthen the overall transparency of the recorded financial details. The use of conceptual framework has been mandated in Australia as well, which has gained immense popularity. However, the professional accountants in Australia have expressed concern over the application of the conceptual framework. In this report, conceptual framework and its implication in the different companies have been given. After that the pros and cons related to the conceptual framework have been depicted. It also divulges that the quality of the conceptual framework is analysed using the analysis of the benefits and limitations of the framework. In this report, South Group Limited and South 32 has been taken into consideration.  In addition to this, implication of the financial statement in context with the disclosure of the financial details have been made.  It is considered that the conceptual framework can be constituted as a modified version of the older accounting standards and the accounting framework. As far as adding value to resolve the certain concerns which existed since long is concerned, the conceptual framework is of no help It is analysed that the components of this statement comprises of the items which can be reclassified to the consolidated income statement and the items which cannot be reclassified to the consolidated income statement. In the end of this report, integrated sustainability reporting has also been given for the better understanding of the financial details.

Part A: Conceptual framework


The conceptual framework is being used for the preparation of financial statements in order to make the accounting policies and standards consistent over the years and among the peers. The decision to develop a global framework to bring uniformity in the accounting over the globe was approved with a green signal in the Norwalk Agreement which was held in year 2002. The history of the conceptual framework can be easily divided into several development phases (Macve, 2015). The Phase 1 ranging from 2001 to 2005 comprised development of accounting standards globally. The programme for convergence of the existing accounting standards with the International Accounting Standards began in the phase 2 from 2006 to 2009. Year 2010-2013 defined the Phase 3 of the process which marked development of several IAS by the FASB and IASB in a joint manner (Flower, 2018). From year 2013 onwards, the phase 4 of the development of Conceptual framework began which defined communicative development of the International Financial Reporting Standards. Since Phase 4 in 144 jurisdictions, the use of the conceptual framework was mandatorily required. The major jurisdictions among them comprised of Australia, UK, USA and certain other main countries (Henderson, Peirson, Herbohn, & Howieson, 2015).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) developed “The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting” (CFfFR) on 28th September 2010. However, initially the 1st Chapter of the Conceptual Framework the introduction of the framework is descripted comprising of the CFfFR’s purpose, scope and status. The concept and definition of reporting entity is being provided by the Chapter 2 of the CFfFR (Schaltegger, & Burritt, 2017). The requirements of the conceptual framework are to be followed by the reporting entity only. In the Chapter 3 of the CFfFR, the details about the fundamental qualitative characteristics, i.e. relevance & faithful representation is descripted. The financial information presented through these financial statements must reflect these qualitative characteristics as well. In the Chapter 4 the remaining concepts of the conceptual framework are comprised (Kieso, Weygandt, & Warfield, 2016).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


The use of conceptual framework has been mandated in Australia as well, which has gained immense popularity. However, the professional accountants in Australia have expressed concern over the application of the conceptual framework as follows (South32 Company, 2018).

  1. The cost relating to the application and follow up with the conceptual framework is high in comparison to the existing framework of accounting (Smith, 2017)
  2. Even after the application of the conceptual framework, the financial statements still ignore the qualitative grounds. The measurement of the non-quantitative characteristics like skills of employees, the labour quality etc. is entirely not considered to balance the financial statements (Lewandowski, 2016).
  3. The conceptual framework can be constituted as a modified version of the older accounting standards and the accounting framework. As far as adding value to resolve the certain concerns which existed since long is concerned, the conceptual framework is of no help.
  4. A conflict at the time of application of the conceptual framework arises when the ideology presented by the conceptual framework differs from the layout of the existing accounting framework (Ravitch, & Riggan, 2016).
  5. It helps in strengthen the overall transparency in the recorded items in the financial statement of both companies.


The quality of the conceptual framework is analysed using the analysis of the benefits and limitations of the framework and these are discussed as follows (South32 Company, 2018).

  • Benefits
  • The comparability of the financial information among the different industry players and between the different industries players has improved. The basis of presentation and preparation has gone consistent and this has worked towards the betterment of user understandability of the financial information (Morioka, & de Carvalho, 2016).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  • The information presented in the financial statements is more reliable and understandable now from the perspective of the users.
  • Measurement of the quality of the financial information if easier now as a base is available to the preparers and users of financial information against which the information can be compared (Mitchell, Van Buren III, Greenwood, & Freeman, 2015).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  • Limitations
  • There is always a room for betterment, but this is not possible in case the conceptual framework is adopted by an organisation. The conceptual frameworks are very rigid and the scope to innovate the manner of accounting goes very limited with their adoption.
  • The provisions which are already applied by the accountants with the use of existing framework can vary drastically with the new conceptual framework. In such a case, a confusing situation may arise. Using this would lead to creation of disputes (Hsieh, Ma, & Novoselov, 2019).
  • It results to complexities in the domestic and international reporting frameworks.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


South32 Company operates in Australia and is registered on the Australian Stock Exchange with headquarters being located in Western Australia in Perth. The industry in which the company operates is of mining and metals. The main products offered by the company in market are aluminium, alumina, zinc, silver, nickel, lead, manganese, thermal coal and cooking coal. The analysis of the application of the conceptual framework by the South32 Company organisation is descripted as follows.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

(i) statements/reports that have been prepared by South32 Company as per the Conceptual Framework and their major components When a company applies the conceptual framework, it is termed as a reporting entity and is required to prepare atleast the statement of financial performance, statement of financial position, statement of cash flow position, notes to financial statements, and statement of changes in equity.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay. These are the minimum sets of financial statements and represent the position of the liabilities, assets, expenses and income of the organisation. the annual report prepared by the company for financial year 2018 is studied and the finding reveals use of conceptual framework by the company for preparation of the following sets as per the framework: Consolidated income statement: this statement reflects the position of income and expenses for the financial period 2018 of South32 Company. The components presented by this statement are revenue for year 2018, cost of profit, gross profit, finance expenses, profit before tax, income tax and profit after tax (South32 Company, 2018).Consolidated statement of comprehensive income: the components of this statement comprises of the items which can be reclassified to the consolidated income statement and the items which cannot be reclassified to the consolidated income statement. Consolidated balance sheet: the balance sheet reflects the assets, equity and liability position of the company South32 Company.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay. The different components comprise of non-current liabilities and assets, as well the current liabilities and assets. Along with the equity component includes reserves, share capital, retained earnings and treasury shares.Consolidated cash flow statement: the movement of the cash held in business is reflected by the cash flow statement. The different transactions reported by this statement comprise the cash transactions incurred in business due to several investing, operating and financing activities.Consolidated statement of changes in equity: the movements occurred in the shareholder’s equity due to the transitions in the reserves and treasury shares including the non-controlling interest share is reflected by the consolidated statement of changes in equity.Notes to financial statements: The detail of the information which is presented in the financial statements is shown in the notes to financial statements. In the annual report of South 32, the different notes to financial statements include notes on Basis of preparation, results for the year, capital structure and financing, operating assets and liabilities and other assets.
(ii)  Recognition principles and measurement bases applied for revenue, assets and liabilities Assets The assets have been recognised using the historical cost approach. Only exception has been the use of fair value method for recognition of financial assets. For the measurement the historical cost is shown reduced by the amount of depreciation charged for every financial period since the acquisition of assets. Revenue The recognition principles specified by the AASB 15, Revenue From Contracts With Customers have been applied by South 32 to recognise revenue in books. Recognition however is undertaken only when the goods or service control is passed on towards the customer. The recognition is done on the basis of expected consideration. A reasonable assurance for collection is however checked. The measurement of revenue is done on the basis of determination of provisional sale price and also upon the market movements. Liabilities The recognition of liabilities of South32 Company is done using the historical cost method. Again the only exception to the use of the historical cost method is the measurement of financial liabilities with the use of fair value method. When the outflow of company’s resources is certain to the organisation, then only the liability is recognised by South32 Company. The measurement of liabilities eventually has been done using the same recognition approach.
(iii) Qualitative characteristics of information exhibit in South32 Company’s various financial reports The fundamental qualitative characteristics of both relevance and faithful representation is exhibited and shown by the information of the South32 Company’s financial reports: South32 Company has recorded all the relevant incomes and costs in financial statements to make it informative as well as material for the users to read and understand.The reflection of the kind of currency used for the preparation of financial statements being US dollar is clearly shown in the financial statements.The presentation of financial information in a segmented form has been done to segregate the financials properly to present the economic conditions of the company’s operations well.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Part B: Integrated/sustainability reporting


Before the inception of the concepts of sustainability reporting Guidelines and the International Integrated Reporting Framework, the organisations worldwide used to reflect in the financial statements only the quantitative results of their business operations. However, with the inception of these two reporting frameworks the focus of presentation by organisations has shifted towards qualitative and non-financial information as well. But, these two frameworks also have certain dissimilarities from each other as well (South32 Company, 2018).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Integrated reporting framework highlights the business performance on both financial as well as non-financial grounds. A cohesive report is prepared wherein the organisation mentions about the financial results achieved with the social decisions taken and environmental concerns resolved. While, in sustainable reporting the reports only reflect the social and environmental actions that company took for the financial period. Any financial results are separately shown by the annual report of the organisation presenting the sustainable reports.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

In the integrated reporting the main area of focus is shifted towards the stakeholders who extend business finances being the providers of equity investors, providers of debt and brokers. While, the sustainable reports are generically prepared to attract several categories of stakeholders, be they interested in financial results or in the quality of environment, society or well-being of everyone inclusively (Sappi Group, 2018).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


Although the introduction of the sustainable reporting and the integrated reporting has added to the quality of the financial reports prepared by an organisation, the reports presented using them are often criticised because of the several strengths which were only exhibited by the conventional accounting. These are mentioned as follows:

  1. Application of the method of conventional accounting is must cheaper and less complex.
  2. The time incurred by an organisation to prepare the reports using the conventional method of accounting is very less as compared to the preparation of reports on the basis of the integrated as well as sustainable reporting (Ellwood, 2018).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

But, the popularity gained by these innovative reporting forms is not forged. There are several limitations comprised in the conventional accounting which required the change. These are listed as follows:

  1. The variety of stakeholders dealt by the integrated and sustainable reports is extremely huge in comparison to the limited genre of the stakeholders served by the reports generated in the conventional accounting.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  2. The scope of conventional accounting in terms of life of business is very limited. While the integrated and sustainable reports try to formulate reports which consider the business continuity for a longer tenure and from varied perspectives (Gendron, 2018).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


The usefulness or limitations of various theories which elaborate the contents specified in the sustainability as well as integrated reporting are as follows:

Theory Usefulness or limitation
1. Capital need theory This theory imparts the usefulness of disclosing information voluntarily to the providers of capital to business. This voluntary disclosure is certain to attract more investments in business at reasonable rates. This theory somehow purports the usefulness of adoption of integrated reporting by the organisations.
2. stakeholder theory The business can run in the longer phase only when the varied interests of all the stakeholders having any direct or indirect interest in business are being fulfilled and concerned for. The basis of stakeholder theory is useful for understanding the concept behind the development of integrated reporting framework and the sustainable reporting (Freeman, Harrison, & Zyglidopoulos, 2018).
3. legitimacy theory When a business utilises the resources provided by the environment in which the business operates, it is naturally least expected from the business to do not cause any harm to the environment. Legitimacy theory requires business houses to create value for the surroundings from where resources are acquisitioned. Using the resources of land mandates the business house to follow the rules which are beneficial for that land (Hummel, & Schlick, 2016).


Several components when present in a report make it become an integrated report. These components along with an analysis of whether or not the selected African Company South Group Limited has disclosed information against these components is reflected below in the checklist presented:

  1. Information about the elements of external environment affecting the value creation ability of the business in near and long term future.

The annual report of Sappi Limited discloses the effect of commercial, social, political, environmental and legal environment upon the working of Sappi.

  • The details about the governance structure.

Annual report of South Group Limited clearly shows the structure of governance as well the several committees formulated in the business.

  • Details about the business model of the organisation.

In the integrated report presented by Sappi the manner of transformation of business inputs into the outputs using several processes is clearly descripted. The list of material inputs including finances and their source is shown in the integrated report presented by South Group Limited.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  • The type of business risks and the kind of opportunities available to business are shown in the report which affects the value created by business (South32 Company, 2018).

South Group Limited’s annual report has a separate section depicting the key business risks and opportunities that are available to the business for the period gone and coming periods.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  • The type of business strategy and the resource allocation to materialise the same.

South Group Limited has reflected the business strategy allocated by it in business to achieve the intended goals in measurable terms. Along with the manner in which the requisite resources are allocated is also shown.

  • Basis of presentation and preparation of the report.

The basis of preparation of the integrated report of South Group Limited is presented and the measurement basis is also clearly descripted.

As far as adding value to resolve the certain concerns which existed since long is concerned, the conceptual framework is of no help It is analysed that the components of this statement comprises of the items which can be reclassified to the consolidated income statement and the items which cannot be reclassified to the consolidated income statement.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


The report presented by South32 Company is a sustainable report and not an integrated report as prepared by the South Group Limited. The contents of the reports are similar but the genre of information collected is very different. The sustainable report however is only reflecting the non-financial areas of South32 Company which has been reflecting the company’s actions on the environmental and social background. The comparative structure of the different reports prepared by the South Group Limited and South32 Company is as follows:Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  1. The financial considerations of the external environment are completely ignored in the sustainability report of South 32 while the integrated report prepared by the South 32 is an overall presentation of the different elements of external environment which have a bearing upon the ability of the group to create value for itself.
  2. The details of governance structure are reflected in the annual report of South32 Company and not in the sustainability report. While the integrated report is an overall accumulation of all the details of governance structure as well.
  3. The business model again is presented in the annual report of South 32 and not in the sustainability report. Only the input, processes and output in relation to the activities for the betterment of society and environment are shown, unlike the entire business model details in the integrated report of South Group Limited.
  4. The key risks limited to the social and environmental concerns of organisation are shown in the sustainability report. The entire business risks and opportunities are shown separately in the annual report. For South Group Limited however an integrated report is being presented.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
  5. Similarly the strategy for business is limited to the sustainable actions for the environmental and social concerns of South32 Company. The financial proposition of business is separately reflected through the annual report. The South Group Limited’s integrated report however includes the entire strategy be for financial or non-financial counterpart.
  6. As there is no financial information which is reflected through the sustainability reports of South32 Company, the report need not contain any basis of preparation and measurement criterion ((South32 Company, 2018).
  7. It helps in setting up the transparency of the financial details and strengthen the financial frameworks.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


After assessing the annual report of these companies, it has been observed that integrated reporting framework highlights the business performance on both financial as well as non-financial grounds. This report divulges the key understanding on the financial conceptual framework of the organization. There are several conceptual framework have been developed which helps in strengthen the overall outcomes of the company.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay. The comparability of the financial information among the different industry players and between the different industries players has improved the financial performance of the company. Now in the end, it could be inferred that if company wants to sustain the business in long run then it will have to set up proper harmonization in the international and domestic reporting framework. However, implication of the various theory imparts the usefulness of disclosing information voluntarily to the providers of capital to business. The fundamental qualitative characteristics of both relevance and faithful representation is exhibited and shown by the information of the South32 Company and Sappi Group Company’s financial reports. Both companies have maintained the transparency by implicating the capital theory and financial aspects theory.  Company needs to set up proper set of reporting framework to sustain its business in long run.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Template Outline for Speeches


As opposed to its name, small talk is significant. It is considered as the segue to prospective employee meetings, fellowships, sentimental connections, significant associations, and obviously incredible discussions. However, talking about small points isn’t in every case simple, particularly with individuals you don’t have a clue about and with whom you might not share much practical speech. Small talk is a procured aptitude, and along these lines requires a great deal of training. Moreover, the training is frequently ugly, difficult and clumsy, which causes the individuals to avoid it totally. Yet, it wouldn’t change its significance, its effect on how you are seen and how efficiently one can travel through the world. On the off chance that you can stand to practice, an individual’s social aptitudes will improve.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

Would-be outgoing people will get consolation however little motivation out of this not exactly glittering self-improvement primer. The author Debra Fine, who is a discussion specialist, demands that small talk is the essential suggestion to more profound correspondence, the way to creating business leads as well as dates and a pathway to a more extravagant life in which outsiders are mysteriously changed into colleagues (Fine, The fine art of small talk, 2005). The author covers such mixed drink party problems on spotting approachable conversationalists, how to make presentations, how to impose upon a charming discussion, revive a hailing one and ransom of an exhausting one, and how to oppose one-uppers, know-it-alls, and different abusers of talk. Given the instilled human hesitance to converse with outsiders, will, not process, is the main problem.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay. A significant part of the book is taken up with inspirational enthusiasm converses with getting perusers to start to get in touch with (one activity recommends to stroll through the shopping center and simply make proper acquaintance with ten individuals as you pass them); in our current reality where everybody feels speechless, the author contends, saying for all intents and purposes anything makes one a saint. Unfortunately, it doesn’t really make one an extraordinary conversationalist. The core of Fine’s strategy comprises of not insignificant arrangements of icebreakers and welcoming inquiries that she trains perusers to retain and continue discussions, and these read like rather awful casual discussion dull, stilted and ungainly. Tongue-tied perusers can profit by the author’s pointers and admonishment, yet one expects they will think somewhat harder before they talk. Small talk gets a terrible reputation. To stay away from this purportedly good for nothing drivel, individuals skip organizing occasions. Or then again, nearly as awful, they visit, however, converse with the three individuals they definitely know (Kanter, ‘Small talk’, 2016).

This is limited, says Debra Fine, the author of The Fine Art of Small Talk. “Small talk is the starter for any relationship,” she says, and individuals like to work with those with whom they’ve set up shared belief. “A decent organizer is hoping to encourage connections and fabricate a network never knowing how that contact can support now or later on. The specific purpose of the speech is that ‘each discussion is an open door for progress’. In the present informative book representation firstly i will discuss about the point of expectation and then, the point about something to talk, followed by leading the conversation or a small talk with a declaration.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


I.             Lower Your Expectations

  1. While you can seek after the best, don’t anticipate a lot from some random visit. As stated by Gardner, Samuel & Williams (‘Sociology of low expectations’, 2015) relaxed individuals are, by chance, increasingly pleasant for others to be around as well.
    1. It is essential to have the option to adjust to various types of social situations, however, it is likewise imperative to know yourself, when you are most agreeable and ready to act naturally. “I’d state that paying little heed to where somebody falls on the contemplation extraversion continuum, it perceives the sorts of circumstances where you’ll be most happy with communicating with others and seek after those sorts of settings,” the fact states by Garrels, (‘Getting good at small talk’, 2018) “There isn’t only one ‘right’ approach to mingle and becoming involved with this story can build the nervousness that accompanies organizing, small talk, and making companions.”Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

II.            Have Something To Talk About

The author states that she had never approached a gathering, an industry work, or a systems administration occasion without the least 3 things to discuss. “When is the most exceedingly terrible opportunity to arrive up with something to discuss? When you don’t have anything to discuss!” specifically, the author rehearses a strong response to “How are you?” or “How are things?” so the author doesn’t react with an “unhelpful single word answer” that powers a discussion accomplice to do a significant part of the work.

  1. One approach to guarantee a discussion never gets off the ground is to continue checking your telephone. Hall (‘How many hours does it take to make a friend’, 2018) proceeded to state that creation discussion is hard, in light of the fact that we can’t generally control how it will go, and hence in the event that it sputters we utilize our telephones as an approach to prematurely end the awkwardness.
  • In case you’re in a discussion with somebody who’s especially difficult to connect with, attempt the old meeting trap of giving individuals two choices if one alternative is right, individuals will expound on it or if nor is, individuals rush to address a flawed impression. The amendment at that point offers various pursue on potential outcomes.

III.           Leading With A Declaration

The author critically analyzes the part that the vast majority of individuals like to discuss themselves, so posing questions is a decent method to catch up once you’ve built up a protected subject. Keep away from close-finished inquiries and rather get some information about most loved recollections. That gives individuals a chance to recount to their best stories.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

  1. The author argues that you can remove yourself or you can acquaint your discussion band together with somebody however there might be no place else to go. So great conversationalists additionally realize how to move. On the off chance, I agree that she’s been discussing work, the author prefers to solicit “What keeps you occupied outside of work?” If you’ve built up general true to life information, she prescribes giving the individual a chance to demonstrate to you her best self with “What has the feature of your year been up until this point?” Who knows, it may be a feature you’re intrigued as well, and the individual goes from casual discussion accomplice to a true companion.
    1. The author argues that on the off chance that you are going into a get-together where you don’t generally know anybody, it’s best not to go into that circumstance without having a few discussion subjects in your back pocket. “On the off chance that you don’t know anybody, it’s ideal to utilize the data around you, begin with the occasion. Ask somebody where they are from, and if not what brought them here, regardless of whether it is a wedding, organizing capacity, and so forth.” (Fine, The fine art of small talk, 2005).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.
    1. It is the most accurate point as to take cautions not to ask individuals what they do or what their title is, particularly at a work occasion, as the discussion will probably arrive naturally as the author prescribes. The author debilitates getting some information about marriage or children since that is close to home and frequently prompts an impasse in the discussion, particularly if the appropriate response is no. Furthermore, the author says if individuals need to examine their accomplice or children, they will coordinate it into the discussion and debilitates talking about work, it isn’t the manner by which significant associations are made. The author thinks asking open-finished questions, particularly about the occasion, the season, the surroundings and so on are simple and a decent beginning stage (Fine, The fine art of small talk, 2005).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


The present book informative representation is based on the book written by Debra Fine, i.e., ‘The Fine Art of Small Talk’. The book discusses the point that small talk is the starter for any relationship and individuals like to work with those with whom they’ve set up shared belief. The major points discussed in the speech states that a decent organizer is hoping to encourage connections and fabricate a network never knowing how that contact can support now or later on. The specific purpose of the speech was that every discussion is an open door for progress. It also discuss about the point of expectation and the point about something to talk, followed by leading the conversation or a small talk with a declaration. Small talk can be tension instigating, particularly with individuals you don’t know well and in circumstances that are not perfect. Therefore, it is required to be aware of what we’re supposing and distinguish what panics us. The analysis isn’t empowering sympathy is. However much as could reasonably be expected, it addresses ourselves the manner in which we do with a decent companion. The speech further suggests to modify your self-talk, take a couple of full breaths, and on the off chance that you have to enjoy a reprieve for some air or a couple of minutes alone, it’s more than alright to do as such. In a perfect world, this sort of self-care will push you to really draw in with, rather than maintaining a strategic distance from, others.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.


Bus stop display system development is the main aim of this project. Here Java code for the bus stop display system is developed. And the implementation methods and explanation for the developed coding is given below (Douglass, n.d.).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

The BusStopDisplay class used to read the routes.csv file. It has the bus stop information such as bus number, source, destination, due at and status. It has eight records.  The main function is the entry point for the Java Virtual Machine. The heading is bus stop displays. The FileReader and read() function used to read the CSV file (Foster & Price, 2005). The System.out.print used to print the results. Here print the bus route information. The fread.close() function used to close the file.

Created the array list for storing the route information. The route_information is the object. It is used to add the bus details to the array list. The add keyword is also used to add the details to the array list. There are eight records are added to the array list (Friesen, 2000).

The HasExpectedBuses class used to read the timetable.csv file. It has bus arrival and departure time. The FileReader and read() used to read the file. The close() function used to close the file.

The Route class has four variables such as route_source, route_destination, route_num, and distance. These variables data type is a string. The RoutesAndStopInfoParser is the constructor. The bus is the object of the routedAndStopInfoParser (Markham, 2014).

The Route is the constructor. It has five arguments such as route_no, route_start, route_terminate, and distance_value.

The above code is to display the bus stop information. It has the route id, source, destination, and distance. The bus object used to invoke the toString function .

In the above section of the code class “RoutesAndStopParser” is shown. It helps to show the calling routes, seat number and times, etc. The class contains four variables on it. And they are callingRoutes, seat_number, departure times, and speed_value. The constructor has four variables. And they are b_num, cap, dri, and sp (McAffer, Lemieux & Aniszczyk, 2010).Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

The getCallingRoutes() method used to get the bus routes. It return the calling routes value. It data type is integer. The getseat_number() method has the bus available seat numbers. It data type also integer (Schmuller, 2004). The getDepartureTimes() method used to find the bus departure time and also is remain the bus display status such as on time, delay and cancelled. It data type is string.

The above codes are invoke the getspeed_value() and setDepartureTimes(). The setDepartureTimes has the dri_name arguments. The getspeed_value() used to get the bus speed value. it return the speed value. it data type is string and it has the public access modifier.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

In the developed code all outputs are stored as different formats like int, float, etc. But for displaying purpose string format is preferred. So that we need to convert the output into the string. For that, we used a “toString” function. It converts output values (different format) into strings. Then the code executed and shows the results in the required format.


Description: D:\Tamilselvi\MAY\992546-Java Programming\output\2.PNG
Description: D:\Tamilselvi\MAY\992546-Java Programming\output\3.PNG

In the above screenshot, the information founded from the given CSV file is shown. The developed code initially collect and store the information present in the attached CSV file. So all the data present in the three CSV files are shown here. The attached CSV file contains the details like number, source, destination due at and current status. Then the coding process the data and shows the bus routes and time similar to the below-attached screenshot. And the screenshot contains the information like Route Id, Source and destination and distance (Scott, 2001). Also, the output shows the information in a simple and understandable manner. And the output screenshots were shown in the below context.

UML daigram

There are five classes in the UML diagram such as Time table, Route, Expected bus, Bus stop display, and Route alert. The time table has the bus number and due at variables. It is associated with the expected bus. It has a bus number, available seats, and status variables. It composition to bus stop display class.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.

The bus stop display has four variables such as routeId, source, destination, and distance. And it has two methods such as RoutesAndStopInfoParser() and Route(). It is composed to the Route class. The route class has three variables and methods. It associates to the routealert. It has three variables and two methods such as getCallingRoutes() and getDepartureTimes().

There are two data types defined in the UML diagram such as dueat and routeid. The dueat has hours and minutes. The enumeration is created for status. It has cancelled, ontime and delay.Immigration Law- Case Study Essay.