Human Research Protection Essay
This week you will examine the concept of protecting human subjects in research. The aim is to familiarize you with the ethical issues associated with research and gain firsthand information of the processes used to protect research participants.Search YouTube for the following videos to review:
After viewing the videos, in a Microsoft Word document of 2-3 pages formatted in APA style, address the following criteria for each video:
On a separate references page, cite all sources using APA format.
Human subject protection has been a general reference term that has been used collectively to refer to the policies, procedures, and guidelines that ensure ethical considerations and the human right protection for the human subjects that are used as participants in the research. The involvement of the human subjects in research carries with it the regulatory responsibility, as well as the ethical issues consideration by the involved researcher to minimize the associated risks and as well, protect the welfare and interest of those subjects (Sobottka, 2016). This essay will look into the ethical principles of human participation research in reference to some specific YouTube online videos. Human Research Protection Essay.
Analysis Regarding Protecting Human Subjects in Research
Human subject’s protection in research that involves human participants is central as it guarantees the welfare and interest of the involved subjects. A YouTube documentary entitled “Caring Corrupted: The Killing Nurses of the Third Reich” highlights the events that involved Germany medical personnel in collaboration with the government during the holocaust period. Those who were bestowed with the human protection duty disregarded this fact and abandoned their professional ethics during the Nazi era. Hundreds of thousands were subjected to involuntary sterilization and many others faced their deaths through overdose and starvation under the observation of the nurses (Madeira, 2015). One important lesson from this documentary regarding protecting human subjects in research is the principle of voluntary participation. My rationale for the importance of voluntary participation in research is that a person is given the chance to weigh on whether to participate or not in order to observe the human rights principle, as well as creating the room for participation through a free will (Madeira, 2015).
Another interesting YouTube video on “Research Ethics involving Human Subjects” focuses on Nuremberg trials which involved participants by force mainly those who were captured and imprisoned. Inhuman research activities such as being kept in the ice-cold water for hours and seawater injection led to a high number of participants’ deaths ranking the research as high risk. The important point regarding protecting human subjects in research from this video is that the benefits of the research must outweigh the risks (Garrison, 2010). Human Research Protection Essay. My rational on the benefit-risk ratio is that the risks must be minimized to the least possible and where the possibilities of minimizing the risk are limited, then the research must be placed on a halt to protect the welfare of the subjects. At all times, the benefits of the research must outweigh the associated risks.
On the other hand, “The Belmont Report (Part One: Basic Ethical Principles)” YouTube video focuses on the bioethics policy in regard to the research involving human subjects. As such, it provides a summary of the principles and guidelines to conduct human research. One important point raised by this video regarding protecting human subjects in research is that every research should be guided by principles of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons. My rationale for this is that when applied in research, the principles of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons create equality, builds trust, and provides justice to every participant. Research that involves marginalized groups such as children, those who are physically and mentally impaired, as well as prisoners must ensure ethical considerations and human subjects protection by applying the three principles during the research (Rogers et al., 2013).
What’s more, another YouTube video titled “The Belmont Report (Part Two: Applying the Principles)” narrates that human participation research must be guided by three elements. These are; informed consent, risk/benefit ratio, and selection of human subjects (Adashi et al., 2018). The most important point concerning protecting human subjects in research is the right to information. My rationale regarding the right to information is that the subject will have an informed consent through comprehension of the research at hand, and this will determine the participatory status.
Finally, on the YouTube video “Guiding Principles of Institutional Review Boards (IRB)” the main focus is on the IRB which was established in 1974, due to the rising issues concerning research and ethical violations of the basic principles that guide the human research subjects (Grady, 2019). Human Research Protection Essay/ The important point out of this is that the risks must be minimized to the least and all the researches involving human subjects must show comprehensively the underlying risks and the benefits that warrant those risks. My rationale regarding the risk/ benefit ratio is that control of participatory is vital and ethical considerations might outweigh the benefits of research if the basic human rights for the subjects will be at risk or where the future benefits cannot be justified or are difficult to be projected.
In a recap, the research that involves human subjects is in itself unique from the rest of the research in that it must place the basic ethical considerations and human rights for the subjects. The issues concerning research and ethical violations of the basic principles that guide the human research subjects can be catastrophic and thus require strict adherence to the laid down guidelines. The IRB provides guidelines for research involving human subjects and its mandate is to review the research rationale and whether it meets the required standards through the application of the said principles. Every research therefore must work through the guidance of the respect for persons, beneficence and justice to protect the welfare and provide justice for the human subjects. Human Research Protection Essay.
Adashi, Eli Y,M.D., M.S., Walters, L. B., PhD., & Menikoff, Jerry A, MD,J.D., M.P.P. (2018).
The belmont report at 40: Reckoning with time. American Journal of Public Health, 108(10), 1345-1348. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304580
Grady, C. (2019). Bioethics in the oversight of clinical research: Institutional review boards and
data and safety monitoring boards. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 29(1), 33-49. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/ken.2019.0009
Garrison, L. P. (2010). Regulatory benefit-risk assessment and comparative effectiveness
research: Strangers, bedfellows or strange bedfellows? PharmacoEconomics, 28(10), 855-65. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11538640-000000000-00000
Madeira, J. L. (2015). The ART of informed consent: Assessing patient perceptions, behaviors,
and lived experience of IVF and embryo disposition informed consent processes. Family Law Quarterly, 49(1), 7-28.
Rogers, Wendy,B.M.B.S., PhD., & Lange, M. M., PhD. (2013). Rethinking the vulnerability of
minority populations in research. American Journal of Public Health, 103(12), 2141-6.
Sobottka, E. A. (2016). Commitment and regulation. ethics in research and the human sciences.
International Journal of Action Research, 12(2), 116-143. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1688/IJAR-2016-02-Sobottka. Human Research Protection Essay.