Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Health related report on: Child Immunisation
Infection is usually caused by entry of germs in the human body through air, swallowing or through cuts. The infection can be varied and includes pneumonia, lung infection, septicaemia, blood poisoning, meningitis or infection caused around the brain lining. Immunization is a clinical procedure which is safe, simple and an effective ways for guarding the child against any infectious diseases (DH, 2013; Ministry of Health, 2013). This is carried out as the risk of contracting the disease or infection is high than the risk of the side-effect after the immunisation process.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
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This assignment explores various aspects of immunisation. This includes the basic understanding of immunity, immune system and mechanism of vaccine understanding. Further, the relationship between health belief and health behaviour is explored. Then the health promotion strategies for effective vaccination and the theoretical perspective regarding the health of the child is discussed followed by conclusion.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Immunity is the biological state of being able to safeguard the human body against disease and infections. During infection or disease, the body uses specialized immune system which generates molecules such as antibodies to fight against illness or other diseases. The immune system is a complicated network of molecules, cells and organs which interact with the body and environment. It includes acquired and innate mechanism (Ministry of Health, 2013, p.10). Usually the young children’s body does not have the capacity to deliver useful responses against the various germ invaders. During the immunisation procedure, the vaccines are made up of various germ or bacterial components that cannot cause any disease.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay. Administration of vaccine starts to elicit various immune responses from the non-specific innate cells of the immune system. This recognizes the antigens of the vaccine where the cells of the innate immune system starts to stimulate B and T lymphocytes or adaptive immune system which then develops adaptive responses. The adaptive responses bring about release of antibodies and memory cells. With vaccine delivery the immune system of the body responds to the harmless germ version so as to respond effectively when the body is exposed to real infection and thus bring about prevention from infection (Healthknowledge.org.uk, n.d, Ministry of Health, 2013). Furthermore, vaccination used with fragments or killed micro-organisms generally require few successive doses over period of few months to generate effective secondary responses. However, if single vaccination with live attenuated organisms is used, then secondary responses are generated (gpnotebook.co.uk, 2013). Further booster doses are given for few months, which can bring about long-lasting secondary responses. This extends and reinforces the immunologic memory for the microbe.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Table indicates classification of vaccines:
(Source: Ministry of Health, 2013)
There exist two classes of immunisation. This includes passive and active immunisation. Active immunisation is generation of specialised cells in the body and production of antibodies to fight against the infection (leeds.nhs.uk, 2010). This approach takes much longer time as the body needs to generate the right and accurate responses when encountered with the germ. This kind of immunity lasts longer. Passive Immunity involves the antibodies passage into the child who is being immunised, thus bringing about immediate protection. The antibodies are directly passed from the mother to children via the placenta or through the breast milk (Immunisation AdvisoryCentre, 2013, p.1). Usually the mothers pass their antibodies against the disease which they have been exposed to their children and thus bringing about protection the child. Passive immunisation is temporary and is not long-lasting.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Relationship between health belief and health behaviour:
Babies and children usually do not have a well-balanced immune system so immunizations are carried out in the initial years of the child to protect the children against infectious diseases .Immunization is the way of protecting the child against the spread of any infectious disease by giving appropriate vaccines. Vaccines take around few weeks to work and respond against infection by production of antibodies by the body and staying in the child’s body against any disease or illness and further give long-lasting protection.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay. Vaccines are usually composed of additives such as stabilizers and preservatives (Ministry of Health, 2013,p.5). The active ingredients are vaccines which are made up of from the same germs that cause infections and the germs in the vaccines are weakened and killed to prevent the spread of infection in the child whereas additives contain preservatives to protect the child or the baby against contamination or it may also contain few amount of salt of aluminium which helps the body to respond effectively to the dose of vaccine.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay. Additionally, research has also indicated that immunisation is one of the safest procedures for protecting the child’s health. The vaccines usually take few weeks to work, thus the child is not immediately protected (Davies, M, Mayne, 2000, p.282) .Few of the vaccines needs to be given few more times to build up protection which is long-lasting. Usually one dose of the same vaccine is given in the initial years and the extra dose is given to improve the response of the antibody and improve protection. Moreover, booster doses are also given to children to bring about long-term protection. Research indicates that babies younger than six months are at a higher risk of complications from pertussis.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay. Incase of measles, around thousands of people were killed in United States and Europe each year and about ten of thousands of children were killed by polio during 1940-1950.In mid 1980s, around 100 children suffered from meningitis and other complications due to Hib infection. Premature babies are generally protected as they are highly vulnerable to other infections. Consultation with paediatrician is crucial before the immunisation. Secondly, children who also have low birth weight should be normally immunised (Kidshealth.org. 2011). It is vital for the .Usually this procedure is not delayed but can be delayed if the child has high temperature.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Health promotion strategies for effective Vaccination:
Immunization is a vital procedure which can save the life of a child. Medical advances has protected against many infectious disease due to safe use of effective vaccines. Secondly, vaccines are administered to children after a careful review and research by health care professionals and scientists. Moreover, the prevention of disease by administration of vaccines is much higher than the side-effects present in all children. Effective and safe immunization can save the family money and time. Also vaccination against disease is a good investment and further covers insurance and also in few states, administration of vaccines for children is funded federally by the government and is also affordable to all families (Vaccine.gov. n.d). Children need to be fully immunized and vaccinated to not only protect themselves but also the family and friends. Research indicates that vaccines have eliminated many diseases that have also severely disabled many people.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Table indicating the range of disease af fecting the child and the effects on the child:
|Range of Diseases||Effect of Disease||Side-effects of the vaccine|
Diptheria: This is a contagious disease which spreads in intimate closeness with an infected persons or carrier. This causes breathing difficulties and sore throat
Usually one in fifteen people affected with diphtheria dies as the bacteria releases toxin which leads to heart failure and paralysis
About one in ten people who are immunised have adverse effects such as swelling, redness etc. Severe adverse effects are rare.
Hib or Haemophilus influenza B:This bacterial disease spreads by close contact with an infected person, thereby causing septicaemia, meningitis and osteomyeltitis
About one in twenty persons affected with Haemophilus influenza B dies and around one in four patients might recover but will suffer from deafness and brain damage or suffer from epiglottis
About one in fifteen have adverse effect such as
Redness, discomfort and swelling. Moreover one in fifty vaccinated persons +is affected with fever.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Hepatitis B: This is a viral disease which is spread through the contact with blood or the body fluid of an infected person, thereby causing liver disease ad higher risk of infection for Hepatitis B
Patients effected with Hepatitis B suffer from infection and might die from liver scarring and liver cancer
Patients who are immunized face discomfort, swelling, redness and fever. Moreover, patients suffering from severe side-effects are rare.
Measles: It is caused due to contagious measles virus .Moreover, this causes pneumonia, encephalitis, rash, cough and fever. This is the most prevalent childhood illness.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Research studies indicate that about one in 1,000 people die or effected with eye infection ,convulsions, ear infection, diarrhoea, brain damage, bronchitis, encephalitis and problem of blood clotting
Immunised patients face discomfort, swelling, redness, fever, convulsion, develop encephalitis and temporary blood clotting
Whooping cough: It’s a bacterial disease which is spread through close contact with infected person. This disease can last about 3 months
Usually about one in five hundred people die from brain damage or pneumonia, have fits, encephalitis and pneumonia
The adverse affect after being vaccinated includes redness, swelling, convulsions and immunizations
Pneumococcal disease: This is caused due to bacteria pneumonia. This causes various invasive diseases.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Around one in three infected person develops fm pneumonia, meningitis or face death
The immunized people face swelling or discomfort but the severe side-effects are rare
Rubella or German measles: This disease is spread through the rubella virus. It may be also cause major birth defects in the baby during pregnancy
About nine in ten babies develop from major birth defects such as blindness, deafness and other heart defects if during pregnancy the mother suffers from rubella. Also usually about one in three thousand babies suffer from encephalitis, swollen glands and joints and thrombocytopenia.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
In vaccinated individuals, about one in ten patients are affected with swelling, redness, fever and infection. Moreover the affected individuals develop rash, bruising, bleeding and encephalitis.
Poliomyelitis: Polio is spread by the polio virus. Usually the polio virus infects the gut and then causes meningitis-like illness. This disease causes headache, fever, vomiting, paralysis, nerve damage and affects breathing.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Usually one in hundred people become paralysed and patients if they survive might die or paralysed permanently
Usually no serious side-effects exist in individuals. They can show little soreness, redness etc when vaccine is injected.
Tetanus: This is an infection which is caused due to Clostridium tetani, which is present in the soil. Further, this causes severe agonising contraction of muscles and is fatal
About one in ten people die of the risk of tetanus and the risk is very high for very old or very young person
The patient infected with vaccine may face fever, injection and redness. Moreover, any severe side-effects are rare.
Mumps: Mumps are usually caused due to mumps virus and this infection causes swelling and inflammation of the salivary glands.
Complications include pancreatitis, orchitis, encephalitis and meningitis. The pregnant women affected with mumps causes severe damage to the child. This occurs in almost all cases.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
No severe complications exists in this condition
(Source:Kenny, T ,2011,p.23)
Immunisation schedule is usually structured for children and adolescents. Moreover, starting from six weeks, children are protected against potential dangerous disease. Immunization schedules list the different types of vaccines administered to the child or baby at varied time periods.
The second table below indicates the recommended childhood immunization schedule:
|Age where the vaccine is administered||Type of vaccine administered|
During two months after the baby is born
At four month old
At six months
At twelve months
At thirteen months
The vaccine usually administered at birth is BCG tuberculosis vaccine
Six in one dose is given (Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, Hemophilus influenza B, hepatitis B, polio and PCV or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
Six in one (Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, hemophilus influenza B, hepatitis B, polio and Men C or meningococcal C
Six in one (Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, hemophilus influenza B, hepatitis B, polio and Men C and PVC
MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) and PVC(pneumococcal conjugate vaccines)
Hib or hemophilus influenza B and Men C or meningococcal C.
(Source: immunisation.ie, 2013; NHS, 2012)
In sum, the new born babies are nowadays administered with special vaccines. Few examples includes babies of mothers who are carriers of hepatitis B receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin, hepatitis B vaccine during birth to prevent any sort of infection. Secondly, babies who are at tuberculosis risk are administered with immunisation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin after the birth of the baby (Vaccine data sheets, n.d ; American Academy of Pediatrics,2009).Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Theoretical perspectives regarding the concept of child health:
Child protection through immunization is reducing the spread of contagious disease supported by child care services and schools. The Public Health Care 2005 provides direction about child care and attendance in care for children affected with contaminated and contagious disease. The aim of the act is to promote and protect the health care of the citizens. This act safeguards the health of the public through the cooperation between the local government, state government, community and health care providers. Furthermore, this is achieved by controlling, preventing and reducing the risk of public health, defining various obligations on the person and the health care facilities (Queensland Government, 2013;cdc.gov, n.d) which are involved in providing various appropriate health care services for infection risks minimization, inquiring about serious matters concerning public health and responding to the emergencies related to public health.
The health care professional has the role to provide accurate and adequate information and data regarding the benefits ad risks of immunisation and respond appropriately with the parents and guardians of the child. This is crucial in making informed timely decisions to bring about increased quality of life in the patient’s life (Ministry of Health, 2011).Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
Table below indicating the responses regarding immunisation concern:
(Source: Ministry of Health, 2011,p.2)
Immunization is a clinical procedure which is safe, simple and an effective ways for guarding the child against any infectious diseases. This is carried out as the risk of contracting the disease or infection is high than the risk of the side-effect after the immunisation process. Immunity is the biological state of being able to safeguard the human body against disease and infections. During infection or disease, the body uses specialized immune system which generates molecules such as antibodies to fight against illness or other diseases. Immunization is a vital procedure which can save the life of a child (Healthed.govt.nz, 2011, p.3). Medical advances has protected against many infectious disease due to safe use of effective vaccines. Moreover, vaccines are administered to children after a careful review and research by health care professionals and scientists. Moreover, the prevention of disease by administration of vaccines is much higher than the side-effects of vaccines administered in all children.Health Related Report on: Child Immunisation Essay.
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