Health Related Primary Articles

Health Related Primary Articles

APA referencing Assignment

You are expected to select 10 health related primary articles published in peer reviewed


Write a brief sentence from each article as in-text citation. It can even be a simple

sentence. Then write an APA reference list for all the 10 primary articles you selected.

Nurse shortage is a source of concern as it negatively impacts patient safety. This occurs by increasing the risk of care being compromised even as that quality of nursing care is reduced. Efforts to address the shortage by engaging lower skilled nurses demanding lower salaries has not done much to address the situation as they are unable to address the same roles and responsibilities with the same capability (Rosenberg, 2019).Health Related Primary Articles

Spurlock Jr. (2020) identifies nurse personnel shortage as an issue of concern that has worsened in the face of Covid-19 pandemic that interrupted nursing education activities. The situation highlights the need for leveraging communication and information technologies to apply distance learning and simulation that meets social distancing needs of Covid-19.

Johnson et al. (2020) seeks to offer a comprehensive understanding of nursing staff shortage as a real concern with a focus on the aggregate trends and cyclical responses. The article suggests that the shortage concern can be addressed by engaging temporary nurses, shifting nurses from part time to full time, delaying retirements, increasing relative wages, and added worker effect.


Drennan and Ross (2019) explores the issue of nursing staff shortage from a global perspective. It reports that although nurses should ideally be half of the global workforce, that is not the case with significant shortages reported. The shortages disproportionately affect regions with lower economic capabilities, such as Africa, and remote areas.

Maresova et al. (2020) identifies nurse shortage as an issue of concern in Czech Republic. The authors suggest that the issue should be addressed unifying employment standards, specifying and adjusting the role and competency of nurses, and improving the quality of conditions during studies and employment. Additionally, the profession should be promoted by schools and ministries so that nursing is positively perceived as embodying selflessness and solidarity.

Marć et al. (2018) presents the results of a study to address selected determinants of nursing shortages in the face of ageing nurse personnel populations. It identifies the human resource crisis in nursing care as a strategic area within the context of an ageing global population. The causes of nursing shortage are reported to be multifaceted, to include ineffective planning, poor recruitment, undersupply, and population demographic conditions. The issue should be addressed by improving the working and employment conditions, regulating salaries, lifelong learning, and incorporating innovative technologies.

Mtega et al. (2017) notes that the existing nurse shortage has negative implications for care outcomes thus creating a need for the issue to be addressed. Consulting nurses on how the issues should be addressed, the study reported nurses want acknowledgement and opportunities to work collaboratively towards resolving the shortage.Health Related Primary Articles

Gray, Wilde and Shutes (2018) offers suggestions for enhancing nurse satisfaction as a strategy for improving nurse retention and reducing nurse shortage. The authors’ note that nurse satisfaction can be improved through team-working, continuing professional development and autonomy. It concludes that managers must work closely with nurses to understand and meet their needs to improve satisfaction levels thereby addressing staff shortage concerns.

Weaver et al. (2018) measures the impact of nursing shortage. It notes that nursing shortage translates to gaps in care available. It recommends that care delivery would be best served by attracting more nurse personnel. This can occur by incentivizing the employment opportunities, offering education scholarships, fiscal models to improve wages, and reimbursements for personal expenses incurred in care delivery.

Flinkman, Isopahkala-Bouret and SSalanterä (2013) presents the results of a study exploring the intention of nurses to leave the profession. It notes that an alarming number of young registered nurses are willing to leave the profession. Reasons advanced for the willingness to leave the profession include nursing being a second career choice, demanding work content, poor practice environment, and inability to identify with stereotypical images of nurses.


Drennan, V. M., & Ross, F. (2019). Global nurse shortages—the facts, the impact and action for change. British Medical Bulletin, 130(1), 25-37.

Flinkman, M., Isopahkala-Bouret, U., & SSalanterä, S. (2013). Young Registered Nurses’ Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A Qualitative Case Study. International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2013, Article ID 916061, 12 pages.

Gray, K., Wilde, R., & Shutes, K. (2018). Enhancing nurse satisfaction: an exploration of specialty nurse shortage in a region of NHS England. Nursing Management, 25(1), 26-33.

Johnson, W. G., Butler, R., Harootunian, G., Wilson, B., & Linan, M. (2016). Registered Nurses: The Curious Case of a Persistent Shortage. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 48(4), 387-396.

Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyńska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2018). A nursing shortage – a prospect of global and local policies. International Nursing Review, 66(1), 9-16.

Maresova, P., Prochazka, M., Barakovic, S., Husic, J. B., & Kuca, K. (2020). A Shortage in the Number of Nurses—A Case Study from a Selected Region in the Czech Republic and International Context. Healthcare, 8(2), 152.

Mtega, B., Kibona, L., Dhamani, K., & Petrucka, P. (2017). Perceptions of Nurses on Patient Outcomes Related to Nursing Shortage and Retention Strategies at a Public Hospital in the Coastal Region of Tanzania. Open Journal of Nursing, 7, 1044-1057.

Rosenberg, K. (2019). RN Shortages Negatively Impact Patient Safety. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 119(3), 51.

Spurlock Jr., D. (2020). The Nursing Shortage and the Future of Nursing Education Is in Our Hands. Journal of Nursing Education, 59(6), 303-304.

Weaver, M., Wichman, B., Bace, S., Schroeder, D., Vail, C., Wichman, C., & Macfadyen, A. (2018). Measuring the Impact of the Home Health Nursing Shortage on Family Caregivers of Children Receiving Palliative Care. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 20(3), 260-265.

Health Related Primary Articles