Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay

Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay

Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group. In a paper of 1,000-1,250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following: 1) Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group? 2) What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group? 3) Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors. 4) What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group? 5) Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice. 6) What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why? Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, -double spaced -running header -I choose Black/African Americans


A definition of the ethnic minority (African Americans and the current health status of this group

Black Americans also referred to as African Americans are among the largest ethnic groups in America. Black Americans are major of African ancestry, although some have non-black ancestry.  According to Noonan et al (2016), in 2014, there were over four million African Americans, accounting for 13 percent of the total population of the United States.  Black Americans are the most unhealthy compared to other ethnic groups and the country’s general population in the country.  Race and ethnicity greatly influence the health of African Americans. For this population, racism which involves discrimination, prejudice, and exclusion, is among the key causes of health and social disparities, marked by proximal as well as distal factors influencing health.  From the social angle, racism is associated with poor quality housing, underemployment/unemployment, low income, low levels of education, and poor access to health care. Connected risks entail low-quality schooling, unavailability of health foods, and easy access to alcohol and illicit drugs (Noonan et al., 2016).

Health disparities that exist for the group and nutritional challenges for this group

The health inequalities between Black Americans and the general population are remarkable in high death rates, the risk for conditions, and low life expectancy. According to Shepherd et al (2018), African Americans have higher rates of infant deaths and lower life expectancies compared to the general population. Also, Black Americans have higher mortality rates form cancer and heart disease than the general population.  Explanations for health disparities include language barriers, socioeconomic status, discrimination, low health literacy, poverty, and lack of cultural competency among health professionals.

Access to healthy and nutritious food is a common problem in black American communities. African Americans live in neighborhoods with no easy access to food stores and supermarkets that stock and sell fresh and healthy foods (Noonan et al., 2016).  As indicated by Kolahdooz et al (2016), the consumption of poor diet foods is negatively connected with socioeconomic status. African Americans in low-income neighborhoods have reduced accessibility to diverse forms of food stores (for instance, restaurants, convenience stores, and supermarkets) and healthy food compared to higher income and Caucasian neighborhoods. An unbalanced diet, implying a high consumption of processed food products and low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products among African Americans is reflected by insufficient consumption of Vitamin C and A,  and fiber, and excessive quantities of trans and saturated fat, and added sugar. Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay.

Barriers to health for African Americans resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors

Culture, education, sociopolitical, and socioeconomic factors create significant barriers for African Americans. African Americans have low social economic status, with the group being the poorest ethnic group in the United States. Poverty is associated with inferior health outcomes and heightened mortality and morbidity.  This group lives in some of the lowest quality housing in the country. The quality of housing greatly influences health.  Asthma is connected with poor housing and this group disproportionately suffers from asthma.  Transportation is usually a problem for African Americans, presenting barriers to accessing services, particularly preventing services and wait until emergencies come up(Noonan et al., 2016).

The majority of African Americans have low levels of education and thus low health literacy (LHL). LHL makes it difficult for this group to navigate the highly complex health insurance and health care system.  For example, health information is usually written college level, thus inaccessible to individuals without tertiary education. LHL among this group has its roots in historically unfair power structures. According to Muvuka et al (2020), discriminatory practices and policies have systematically limited the ability of Black Americans to easily access resources along with skills required to obtain, comprehend, and utilize health information. Systemic factors, including racism, mistrust with the health system, limited educational opportunities, and health services and information that are culturally tailored are barriers to health literacy for this ethnic group.

Health promotion activities are often practiced by African Americans

Physical activity, cancer screening, and nutritional behaviors are health promotion practiced by African Americans. However, participation in these activities is inadequate. Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay.  It has been established that regular physical activity has health benefits.  More active adults, compared to adults with a sedentary lifestyle have reduced rates of chronic diseases and numerous forms of cancer.  According to Eastland and Hardy (2016), the CDC recommends adults to engage in two and a half hours of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity in combination with activities that strengthen muscles at least two days a week to attain the best possible benefits and improve health. Nevertheless, only 17.3 percent of Black Americans meet this requirement compared to 22.8 percent of their white counterparts.

Vegetables and fruits lessen the risk of some cancers and chronic conditions. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends three to five and tow to four savings of vegetables and fruits respectively in a day based on the intake of calories. Most of African Americans do not meet both fruit and vegetable recommendations

Cancer screening can detect the disease on time, which can improve the chances of treatment and cure and thus improved the quality of life for survivors. Nevertheless, the rates of screening for the most commonly diagnosed cancers( lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer) are constantly lower for Black Americans compared to Whites(Eastland,  & Hardy, 2016).

One approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group

Improvement of access to quality-care education is an effective approach that is most likely in a care plan of African Americans given the unique needs of this minority group. Access to education will likely improve health because it will lead to standard employment and housed and high health literacy which will in turn enable individuals to access and utilize health resources and information.  Also, early childhood interventions, like structured early childhood education along with parental support programs positively impact parents and children and are effective in addressing health disparities and economic disadvantage (Thornton et al., 2016).  These programs can have positive impact health of African Americans and lessen disparities by improving economic outcomes, strengthening families, and enhancing educational attainment.

Cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan

Spiritual beliefs are cultural beliefs that must be taken into account when developing a care plan. According to Spruill et al (2015), for the majority of individuals, spiritual practices and beliefs act as a source of expression and refugee and offer support for rising over economic and racial conditions. Spirituality is profoundly entrenched in the cultural heritage of the population and entwined in every aspect of life, entailing beliefs about illness and health. Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay.

Leininger Sunrise cultural competence model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for African Americans.  The model represents the culture theory structure by portraying the correlation between anthropological and nursing principles and beliefs. According to Albougami et al (2016), nurses utilize this model when performing patients’ cultural evaluation. The model links the theory’s concepts with real nursing practices while providing an approach to recognizing behaviors, community norms, values, and beliefs. It includes several cultural aspects: philosophical, political, legal, religious, educational, technological, social, and financial dimensions. When these factors are combined with the social environment and language, they considerably influence the services that both the professional and traditional systems deliver.



Albougami, A. S., Pounds, K. G., & Alotaibi, J. S. (2016). Comparison of Four Cultural Competence Models in Transcultural Nursing: A Discussion Paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2: 053. doi: 0.23937/2469-5823/1510053.

Eastland, T. Y., & Hardy E. C. (2016). Facilitators and barriers to health promotion in African-American adults: A qualitative systematic review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 14(7), 84-90. doi: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-002993

Kolahdooz, F., Butler, J. L., Christiansen, K., Diette, G. B., Breysse, P. N., Hansel, N. N., McCormack, M. C., Sheeny, T., Gittelsohn, J., & Sharma, S. (2016). Food and nutrient intake in African American children and adolescents five to 16 years in Baltimore. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 35(3), 205-216. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.959206

Muvuka, B., Combs, R. M., Ayangeakaa, S. D., Ali, N. M., Wendel, M. L., & Jackson, T. (2020).   Health Literacy in African-American Communities: Barriers and Strategies. Health Literacy Research and Practice, 4(3), e138-e143.

Noonan, A. S., Valasco-Mondragon, H. E., & Wagner, F. A. (2016). Improving the health of African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice. Public Health Reviews, 31, 12.

Shepherd, S. M., Willis-Esqueda, C., Paradies, Y., Sivasubramaniam, D., Sherwood, J., & Brockie, T. (2028). Racial and cultural minority experiences and perceptions of health care provision in a mid-western region. International Journal for Equity in Health, 12, 33.

Spruill, I. J., Magwood, G. S., Nemeth, L. S., & Williams, T. H. (2015). African Americans’ Culturally Specific Approaches to the Management of Diabetes. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 2: 2333393614565183. doi: 10.1177/2333393614565183

Thornton, R. L., Glover, C. M., Cene, C. W., Glik, D.C., Henderson, J.A., & Williams, D. R. (2016). Evaluating Strategies For Reducing Health Disparities By Addressing The Social Determinants Of Health. Health Affairs (Millwood), 35(1), 1416-1423. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1357 .  Health Promotion in Minority Populations Essay.