Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.


Geriatrics is the branch of remedies that targets healthcare of the elderly. This is the study of the aging process itself. The word comes from the Greek geron meaning “old man” and iatros so this means “healer”.

Geriatrics is the branch of medication interacting with the aged and the issues of the maturity. The field of gerontology includes disorder protection and management, health maintenance, and campaign of the quality of life for the aged. The ongoing upsurge in the amount of elder person. The encounters of aging result from connection of physical, mental, social and cultural factors. Aging as well as the treating older people, is often determined the way elder person views the process of increasing age, as well as the way in which in which he or she adapts to growing older. A far more heterogeneous elderly population than any era that preceded it can be expected.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

The most elderly seen in the health health care setting up have been diagnosed with at least 1 persistent condition. People who in the 1970s wouldn’t normally have survived a debelitating disorder, such as cancer or a castastrophic health event leki hearth strike, is now able to life more period of sometimes with a variety of concurrent debilitating conditions. Although get older is most regular and most powerful predictor of risk for cancer and then for the fatality from cancer tumor, a mangement of elder tumors patient becomes complicated because the choronic conditions, such as osteoarthritis, diabetes,

Aging is a broad concept that includes physical changes in people’s bodies over mature life, psychologic changes in their mind and mental capacities, interpersonal pyschologic changes in they think and consider, and social changes in how they are looked at, what they expect, and what is expected of them. Aging is continually evolving notion. Notions that biologic age group is more critical than chronologic get older when determing health status of the alderly are valid

Aging is an individual and intensely changing process. The functional capacity of major body organs ranges with advancing age group. As one grows aged, environmental and lifestyle factors affet the age-related practical changes in body organs


A Care and attention Plan can be an outcome of an geriatric analysis, and is essentially an action plan for future good care. A Treatment Plan lists all recognized problems, implies specific interventions or actions required and makes specific advice regarding resources had a need to supply the necessary support services.

What is geriatric diagnosis?

A geriatric assessment is a thorough evaluation made to optimize a mature person’s ability to enjoy good health, enhance their overall quality of life, reduce the dependence on hospitalization and/or institutionalization, and enable them to live separately for as l ong as is feasible.

An assessment contains the next steps:

An examination of the elderly person’s current status in terms of:

Their physical, mental, and psycho-social health

Their ability to function well and also to independently perform the essential activities of everyday living such as dressing, bathing food prep, medication management, etc.

Their living plans, their interpersonal network, and their access to support services.

An id of current problems or expected future problems in any of these areas.

The development of a thorough “Care Plan” which addresses all problems diagnosed, implies specific interventions or actions required, and makes specific recommendations regarding resources had a need to supply the necessary support services.

The management of an effective linkage between these resources and the more aged person which person’s family so that provision of the necessary services is reassured.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

An ongoing monitoring of the degree to which this linkage has, or hasn’t, addressed the issues identified, and the changes of the Care and attention Plan as needed.

When is a geriatric assessment needed?

A request for a geriatric analysis would be appropriate when there are persistent or intermittent symptoms such as:

memory reduction,


or other signs of possible dementia.


Global impairment of intellectual function (cognition) interfering with public and occupational activities.

Often, what looks like Alzheimer’s or dementia can be the consequence of medication interactions or other medical or psychiatric problems. Because of the thoroughness of the geriatric analysis, it is one of the better ways to know what the real problem and cause is or is not.

Who functions a geriatric assessment?

A geriatric diagnosis can be carried out in a number of adjustments such as:

a clinic,

a medical home,

an outpatient center,

a physician’s office or

the patient’s home.

It can be an diagnosis that is comprehensive in scope, relating a complete overview of the current status of the elderly person in every of its intricate dimensions, and since it is so detailed, it can only just be effectively conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of experts. This team might include:


ancillary employees,

social personnel,

physical and/or occupational therapists,

dieticians, psychologists,

pharmacists, and

geriatric nurse practitioners.

You can demand a referral for a geriatric examination from, the burkha care physician. Also, talk with any large hospital or school to see whether they have a geriatric examination unit.

Geriatric treatment managers

A geriatric treatment supervisor (GCM) is a professional with specific knowledge and competence in senior health care issues. Ultimately, a GCM keeps an advanced level in gerontology, social work, psychology, nursing, or a related health and individual services field. Sometimes called circumstance managers, elder good care managers, service coordinators or good care coordinators, GCMs are those who evaluate your position, identify alternatives, and work with you to design a plan for increasing your elder’s freedom and wellness.

Geriatric attention management usually consists of an in-depth analysis, developing a attention plan, organizing for services, and following up or monitoring attention. When you aren’t obligated to put into action any area of the suggested health care plan, geriatric treatment managers often suggest potential alternatives you will possibly not have considered, because of their experience and knowledge of community resources. They are able to also make sure your loved one obtains the perfect care and attention and any benefits to that they are entitled.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Help provided by geriatric attention managers

Geriatric care managers facilitate the care selection process for family who live at a distance from their elderly family members, as well as for many who live local but have no idea how to utilize the appropriate local services.

You can seek the services of a care director for a single, specific task, such as assisting you find a regular caregiver, or to oversee the whole caregiving process. Geriatric care and attention managers can help individuals or elderly people who are:

new to elder treatment or uneasy with elder good care decision-making;

having difficulty with any aspect of elder health care;

faced with a sudden decision or major change, such as a health problems or a change of house;

dealing with a complex situation such as a psychiatric, cognitive, health, legal, or social issue.

In addition to supporting seniors and their families directly, geriatric attention managers can become your informed connection with a range of other pros who are part of your elder care and attention network, including the following providers:

Attorneys or trust officers. A care director can serve as both elder advocate and intermediary with financial and legal advisors. The GCM is often a good source of referrals if a family group needs services from these experts.

Physicians. The GCM is a perfect liaison between doctors and other health professionals, and the elder patient and family members.

Social workers. It really is useful for hospital and nursing home public workers and discharge planners to know that their mature patient will have someone to coordinate their care and assist them on the long-term basis.

Home care companies. The GCM will know local firms and also make clear options, costs, and oversight of home good care workers. The treatment administrator can also assist in dealing with patients’ cultural issues, help connect to other community resources, and suggest possible position options.

Residential facilities. The GCM can help identify types of care and attention facilities and help you in selecting a proper one for your position. The GCM can also be able to streamline the changeover into or out of your mature community, for both the elderly resident, family members and staff.

Finding a geriatric care and attention manager

In addition to the countless Personal references and resources available, a good location to start your search for a geriatric care administrator is with your loved ones physician. Other options for referrals include:

local nursing homes and health maintenance organizations

senior or family service organizations

senior centers

religious affiliations

Medicaid offices

private care management companies

While geriatric treatment managers are generally licensed by the state of hawaii within their respected fields of know-how, there are no state or national legislation for professional good care managers by itself. For this reason, anyone may use the title circumstance or care director. Membership in a specialist organization and/or documentation in good care management are good indications of appropriate track record. The National Association of Professional Geriatric Good care Managers recognizes the next designations for a “Certified Health care Manager”: CMC, CCM, C-ASWCM and C-SWCM. Each of these requires assessment and continuing education.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Geriatrics syndroms

Dementia, Delirium, BLADDER CONTROL PROBLEMS, Osteoporosis, Comes/ Gait Disorders, Decubitus Ulcers, SLEEP PROBLEMS, Failing to Thrive

Organ specific disease/syndrome

Ear, Attention, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Neurological, Communicable Diseases, Respiratory, Oral, Gastrointestinal, Endocrinological, Sexual Dysfunction and Gynecology, Hematology and Oncology, Kidney/Prostate, Skin area Diseases

Geriatric psychiatry

Mood Disorders, Nervousness Disorders, Personality Disorders, Product Related Disorders, Storage area Disorders (non-dementia)

Patient care

Geriatric Assessment, Hospitalization, Emergency Medical Services, Surgical Procedures, Long-Term Good care, Preventive Health Services, Rehabilitation, Pain Management/ Palliative Care


Age Syndication/Demography, Basic Sciences, Pharmacology/ Polypharmacy

Patient attention of the elderly

Tips for dealing with the eldery patient

Take time to edudcate the patient and his or her family. Speak lower and closer treat the patient with dignity and respect. Supply the patient a chance to relax between projections and steps. Avoid adhesive tape: older skin thin and delicate. Provide arm blankets in wintry assessment rooms. Use table pads and side toenails. Always access the patient’s medical history before contrast mass media is administered.

Patient and family education

Educating all patient, especially the elderly ones, about imaging strategies is crucial to obtain their confindence abd conformity. Additional time with older patient may be essential to accommodate their reduced ability is swiftly process information. The majority of elderly have been identified as having at least one long-term health issues. They typically reach the clinical imaging environment with the natural anxiety because they are prefer to have lilttle knowledge of the procedure or highly technical modalities employed for their procedure. Moreover, a fear involving consequences resulting from the assessment exacerbates their increased degree of stress and anxiety. Taking time to teach patient and their family or signification caregivers in their support system about the procedures makes of the less stressfull experience and better patient compliances and satisfaction.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.


Good communication and hearing skills create a link between the radiographer and his / her patient. The elderly are unique and really should be cured with dignity and respects. Each older person is a wealth of cultural and historical knowledge that is change becomes a learning experience for the radiographer. If it is a apparent that the individual cannot hear or understand the verbal directions. It is appropriate to speak lower and closer. Background sound can be disrupting to an older person and should be eradicated of possible when presenting precise instructions. Giving instruction individual provides elder person time to process a question. An empathetic, warm frame of mind and method of the geriatric patient will lead to a trusting and compliant patient.

Transportation and lifting

Balance and coordination of older people patient can be afflicted by normal aging changes. Their anxiety about slipping can be diminished by assistance in out of an wheelchair and also to and from the exam table. Many seniors patient have reduced height perception resulting from some degree of eye-sight impairment. Hesitition of older people person may be scheduled to previous comes. Assiting a mature patient when there exists need to intensify or down throughout the procedure is more than a reassuring gesture. Preventing opportunities for comes is a necessity for the radiographer. Older people patient will most likely experience vertigo and dizziness when heading from a recumbent postion to a resting position. Giving the patient time to check between position will mitigate these troubling, frightening, and uneasy sensations. The usage of stand handgrips and proper assistance from the radiographer creates a feeling of security for older people patient. A feeling of security will result in a compliant and trusting patient throughtout the imaging procedure.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Skin care

Acute age-related changes in your skin will cause it to become thin and fragile. The skin becomes more susceptible to bruising, tears, abrasion, and blisters. All health care professional should use caution in turning and having older people patient. Excessive pressure on the skin will cause it to break and tear. Adhesive tape should be averted because it can be annoying and can simply tear your skin of a mature person. The increased loss of fat and helps it be painfull for the elder patient to lay in a hard surface and can improve the possibility producing ulceration. Decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are commonly seen in bedridden people or those will reduced mobality. Bony areas such as the heels, angkle, elbow and the lateral hips are frequent side for pressure sores. A decubitus ulcer can form in 1 to 2 2 time. Almost with out exception, table use for imaging types of procedures are hard surface and can’t be avoided. However the use of table pad can decrease the friction between the hard surface of the table and the patient fragile pores and skin. Sponges, Blankets and the setting aids will make the procedures much more bearable and comfortable for older people patient. Because skin performs a critiscal role in retaining body’s temperature, the increasingly thinning process associated with maturing skin renders the patient less able to keep normal body warmth. Thus the rules of body temperature of older people person varies from that to a youthful person. To avoid hypotamia in room where the ambient ier heat is comfortable for the radiographer, it can be essential to provide blankets for older people patient.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Contrast administration

Because of age related changes in kidney and liver function, only the amount, the type of contrast media is mixed when accomplishing radiographic methods on older people patient. The number of functioning nephrons in the kidneys gradually decreases from middle the throughout living. Compromised kidney function plays a part in older people patient being more prone to electrolcyte and fluid imbalance. This can create life-threatening effects. Also, they are more suspectible to the effect of dehydration because of diabetes and reduced renal or adrenal function. The decision if type and amount of contrat advertising used for the geriatric patient usually follow some sprt of routine protocol. Assessment for comparison agent administration accomplished by the imaging technologist must include

age and history of liver, kidney or thyroid disease;

history of hypersensitivity reactions and past reaction to medications or comparison agent ;

sensitivity to asprin;

over the-counter and prescription drug history including acetotaminophen (Tylenol);

and history of hypertension.

The imaging technologist must be selective in locating a proper vein for distinction administration on older people patient. They should consider the positioning and condition of the vein, decrease intergrity of your skin, and the length of time of the theraphy. Thin superficial veins, regularly used veins, and veins located area where the skin area is bruised or scarred should be avoided. Measure the patient for any swallowing impairments, which could lead to difficulties with drinking liquid contrast agents. The patient should be instructed to drink little by little to avoid choking, and an upright position can help prevent aspiration.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

The Radiographers Role

The role of radiographers is not any different than that of most other health professionals. The complete person must be cured, not only the manifested symptoms of a sickness or damage. Medical imaging and restorative procedures represent the impact of ongoing systemic ageing in documentable and visual forms. Adapting steps to accommodate disablilities and diseases of geriatric patient is a crucial responsibility and a challenge based almost specifically on the radiographers knowledge, talents and skills. A knowledge of the physiology and pathlogy of increasing age, in addition to an awareness of the interpersonal, physiologic, congnitive and financial aspects of aging, are required to meet up with the need of elderly inhabitants. Condition typically associated with older patient invariably requires adaptations or modifications of regular imaging steps. The radiographers must have the ability to identify between age-related changes and disease techniques. Creation of diagnostic images necessitating professional decision making to compensate for physiologic changes, while keeping the campliances, basic safety and comfort of the individual, is the foundation of the agreement between the seniors patient and the radiographers.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

Radiographic placement for geriatric patient

The preceding discourse and knowledge of the physical, cognitive, and physchology influence on increasing age can help radiographers conform the positioning obstacles of the geriatric patient. In some instances routine examination need to be modified to accommodate the limitation, safety and comfort of the patient. Communicating clear teaching with the individual is important. The following discussion addresses positioning advice for various set ups.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.


The positioning of choice of the torso radiography is the upright positions, however the elderly patient might not exactly able to stand without assistance because of this examination. The tradisional posterioranterior (PA) position concerning possess the ‘backside of hands on hips. This might problematic for someone with ampaired balanced and flexiblelity. The radiographer can allow the individual to wrap his or her arm surrounding the chest stand as a way of support and security. The patient may not in a position to maintain his or her arms over the head for the lateral projection of the breasts. Provide extra security and stableness while moving the forearms up and onward.

When the individual cannot stand, the evaluation may be achieved sitting in whellchair, but some issue will be impact the radiographic quality. First the radiologist need to be aware that the radiograph is an anterior-posterior (AP) rather than a PA projection, which may make obscure the lung bases, in a sitting position, respiration may be instructed on the importance of a profound inspiration.

Positioning of the image receptor for the kyphotic patient should be greater than normal because the make and apices are in an increased position. Radiographic landmark may change with age and the centering may need to be lower if the individual is extremely kyphotic. When setting the individual for the resting lateral breasts projection. The radiographer should place large sponge behind the individual to lean hind or her forwards.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

CHEST (Portable)

Exam Rationale:

– Cassette size: 35-43cm

– Non-grid

– 72 kVp, 6 mAs

– AP projection (upright or supine)


Radiographic spine exam may hurt for the patient suffering from osteoporosis that is lying on the bucky stand. Positioning products such as radiolucent, sponges, sandbags, and a mattress may be used so long as the quality of the images is not compromised. Performing upright radiographic evaluation can also be appropriate if a patient can safety tolerate this position. Executing upright radiographic examination can also be appropriate if an individual can safely tolerate this position. The blend of cervical lardosis and thoracic kyphosis can make positioning and visualization of the cervical projection can be carried out with the individual standing, seated, or laying supine. The AP projection in the sitting position might not exactly visualize the upper cervical vertebrae because the chin may abscure this anatomy. Within the supine position the head may not reach the stand and lead to magnification. The AP and openmouth projection are difficult to do on the wheelchair.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

The thoracic and lumbar spines are sites for compression fractures. The usage of placement blocks may be necessary ho help the individual stay in position. For the lateral projection, a business lead bloker or shield behind the spinal column should be used to absorb the maximum amount of scatter radiation as possible.


Osteoarthiritis, osteoprosis and injury as the result of falls donate to hip pathologies. A standard fracture in older people is the femoral neck. An AP projection of the pelvis should be done to look at the hip. If the indication is injury, the radiographers shouldn’t attempt to rotate the limbs. The second view taken should be cross-table lateral of the effected hip. If hip pain is the sign, assist the individual to inner rotation of the thighs with use of sandbags if required.

Upper Extremity

Positioning the geriatric patient for projection of the upper extremities can present its challenges. Usually the top extremities have limited flexiblelity and mobality. A cerebrovascular car accident or stroke could cause contractures of the influenced limb, Contractures of the affected limb, Contracted limbs cannot be forced into position, and cross-table views might need to be done. The inability of the individual to move his / her limbs should not be interpreted os a lack of cooperation. Supinated is often a problems in patient with constructures, fracture and paralysis. The regular AP and lateral projections can be recognized by using sponges, sanbags, and blocks to improve and support the extremities being image. The shoulder is also a site of reduced mobality, dislocation, and fratures. The therapist should assess how much movement prior to the patient can do before trying to go the arm. The use of finger sponges may also help with the contractures if the finger.

Lower extremity

The lower extremities may have limited flexibility and mobality. The ability to dorsiflex the ankle joint may be reduced as a result of neurologi disorder. Imaging on the x-ray desk might need to be modified whenever a patient cannot start his / her side. Flexion of the knee may be impaired and require a cross-table lateral projection. When a tangential projection of the pattela, such as the settegast method, is essential and the patient can turn on his or her side, place the image receptor superior to the knee and direct the central ray perpendicular throught the pattela-femoral joint. Projection of your feet and ankles may be obtained with the individual sititng in the whellchair. The usage of positioning sponges and sanbags support and maintain the positioning of your body part being imaged.

Technical Factors.

Exposure factors also have to be taken into considerarion when image the geriatric patient. The loss of bone mass, as well as atrophy of cells, often requires a lower kilovoltage (kVp) to maintain sufficient compare. kVp also one factor in upper body radiographs when there may be a large heart and pleural smooth to penetrate. Patient with emphysema need a reduction in technical factors to prevent overexpose of the lungs areas. Patient diagnosis can help with the correct exposure adjustment.

Time may also be a significant factor. Geriatric patient may have problems preserving the positions essential for the examinations. A short exposure time can help reduce any voluntary and involuntarymotion and deep breathing. Make sure that the geriatric patient clearly hears and understands the respiration instructions.


The imaging professional will continue to see a changes in medical attention delivery system with the remarkable shift in the population of person more than age 65. This shift in the general population is leading to an ongoing upsurge in the number of medical imaging techniques performed on older patient. Demographic and sociable effect on ageing determine just how that your eldely adapt to and view the procedure of aging. Somebody’s family size and perceptions of ageing, financial resources, gender, contest, athnicity, social class, and the supply and delivery of health care will affect the quality of the aging experience. Biological era will be much more critical than chronologic aging when determining the health status of the elderly. Healthier lifestyles and advancement in medical treatment will create a era of successfully ageing adults, which should decrease the negative stereotypes of older people person. Attitude of most health care professionals, whether positive or negative, will impact the attention provided to the growing seniors inhabitants. Education about the mental and physiologic alteration associated with maturing, combined with the cultural, financial, and social affects accompanying aging, allows the radiographers to modify imaging and therapeutic procedures to the elderly patients disablities resulting from age-related changes.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.

The human body undergoes a multiplicity of physiologic changes and inability in all organ systems. the maturing experiences is damaged by heredity, lifestyle, options, physical health, and frame of mind which makes it highly individualized. No individuals agign process is predictable and it is never a similar as that of another individuals. Radiologic technologist must use their knowledge. expertise and skills to adjust imaging procedures to support for disabilities and disease encountered with geriatric patients. Safe practices and comfort of the patient is vital in keeping compliances throughtout imaging strategies. Execution of skills such as communication, listening, sensitivity, and empathy, all lead patient compliances. Knowledges of age-related changes and disease process will anchance the radiographers ability to provided diagnostic imformation and treatment when providing attention that fits the needs if tge increasing elderly patient human population.Health Care Of The Elderly Essay.