Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.


Nursing scarcity has increased greatly and swiftly lately with well developed hospital systems. However, as considering nursing job satisfaction, dedication, and quality of care and attention as a significant issues for health care organizations, there are higher level of turnover rate and staff absenteeism. Nevertheless, satisfied nurses will be more commitment; provide advanced of performance, and creative. Additionally, several studies have confirmed the relationship between personnel satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and the quality of provided good care (AL-Hussami, 2008).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

It discovered that nursing satisfaction is influenced by several factors. Higgins (1999) point out, nurses will have a great sense of satisfaction within the work if they work autonomously, and empowered them self. While Chen-chug, Samuels and Judith (2003) indicated that health care policies have an impact on nursing satisfaction as a powerful policies will meet the staff needs and be more satisfied. Work related factors such as workload and stress, professional medical supervision, salary, authority style, and motivation will be the most related factors related to job satisfaction among the list of nurses (Bartram, Joiner, and Stanton; AL-Hussami 2008)

Working as a nursing demonstrator at Ruler Abdu Aziz University or college (KAAU) and performing as a clinical trainer in the university hospital (KAAUH) with regard to nursing management, I’ve a professional interest to boosting the grade of nursing care and attention by identifying the associated factors of job dissatisfaction.

Embarking upon this fieldwork, the following paper will target exclusively on the techniques of exercising theory-based and attained nursing knowledge by using Herzberg job satisfaction theory into the environment of increasing the quality of nursing care and to be happy with the work in KAAUH. First of all, reflection of my experience by using Carper model will be shown. Secondly, the concept of job satisfaction will be defined. Then a thorough information of Herzberg theory will be reviewed. Finally, making use of of Herzberg theory directly into practice to have a high job satisfaction among nurses will be described.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.


In this experience I attempted to keep up a healthful work place with a superior quality of care by reducing the level of stress and anxiety for both staff nurse and the patient. Moreover, I got wanting to have a highly effective communication and romance with this patient to be more relaxed and content with the provided treatment. Also, the patient safety is an important issue should be considered in this situation as the nurse was complaining from inadequate understanding of choosing the correct vein and the right skills to add the cannula. So, I asked her to get a rest and look for a help from the other staffs to put the cannula for many reasons. The nurse can be more relaxed without interacting with this patient in this example. Moreover, in order to avoid the probability of conflict. Furthermore, to maintain the safeness for the patient by prevent the incident of the issues. So, the patient will maintain the safe way, more comfortable and satisfied with the provided care and attention no more complain can be noted. However, I thought that the nurse was very mixed up and she possessed a low self-confidence of what she performed, but she did not recognized that is a good action for both of these.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.


As a individual I understand the amount of the pain and anxiousness that patient was encountered. I sensed and I recognized that the patient needs a help from the other healthcare providers to be survived by avoiding the coping with this irritated staff. Moreover, I recognized that he was intense with the nurse not because she actually is a nurse, but because of his feeling of pain and higher level of anxiety. Among the primary issues in this situation was the communication. There was no communication no trust romance. As the nurse patient marriage is vital to develop a support and trust between them which is recognized as a crucial concern while providing the attention. The communication process between the nurse and the individual was brooked down that cause a violent behavior from the patient.


I think I’ve managed the situation probably in the right way. The workload and the in appropriate skills may lead to the nursing error which impacts on the patient’s benefits. Much like this go through the patient gets the probability of cannula problem. Moreover, the shortcoming to communicate, knows the individual culture, give a support and the detailing the situation will improve the level of nervousness and reduce the quality of treatment. In addition, to understand the nursing career and their roles is vital concern to enhance the communication and the nurse patient romantic relationship. I think to avoid looking to the medical job as an awful job is very important to the nurse to apply and provide the care with advanced of confident. Furthermore, I am as a nurse needs more attention from a healthcare facility group and from my nurse manager to build up my job by increasing the amount of knowledge. Furthermore, decrease the work overload by ideal staff allocation is an essential. As it is known that the crisis department has crowded patients with different symptoms. In this situation I feel that the nurse director should allocate two certified personnel in each observational room to diminish the workload possibility.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.


Quality in the health care is defined as performing, exercising and providing the care aimed to the patients in the appropriate time and way to achieve the excellence and also have a best patient’s outcomes. It pointed out that the nursing homes with satisfied nurses and low rate of nurses’ turnover are providing a high quality of care and this could be lead to patient satisfaction with the supplying care.

Nurse staffing has a significant role on the patient’s safeness and their final results. Evidence centered practice assessed 26 studies of nursing staffing and the patient’s results. They have reported that the low nurse staff a lot more clients adverse influences such as pressure sore. Furthermore, it discovered that there are several factors adding to the low personnel nurses in the private hospitals. Workload in the ward with few staff nurses can result in many effects such as work stress which is determined as the key obstacle of providing a superior quality of good care. Stress among nursing staff could be derive from a variety of reasons. According to Ditzel. E. M stress is duo to the workload, long hour shifts and the kind of the task or procedure. Furthermore, nursing participation in the individual good care plan is a substantial issue to give a high quality of care. It has confirmed that a good contribution will direct result a good effects. Furthermore, the high quality of good care can be performed with a higher degree of knowledge. So, the personnel development and continuing education is very crucial in any medical center to create high experienced and satisfied nurses.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

At the end of the representation, it recognized that job satisfaction is identified as concept that will be clearly identified and stated within the next section based on evidence.


In all clinics across the world, it seems that the main matter of the patient is to receive a good quality of nursing care and be cured properly. In addition, nurses are demonstrating their knowledge and skills while offering the care, and make the patients to feel convenient through providing the correct support on their behalf as a individual ( ). Furthermore, the quality of care is known as practicing accurately, at the correct time and method for the appropriate person to achieve an excellent consequence by providing safeness, efficiently, well-timed and centered on patients (Wisconsin Hospital Connection 2009). Therefore, to provide a high quality of medical care through a healthcare facility organizations, the nurses should be happy with their job which is considered as a significant concern for the patients, clinics as well as for themselves (insurance plan, 2008). Nursing care has been reviewed, explained, and described through the literature during the past few decades by a number of analysts. However, numerous studies have exhibited that there surely is a link between the nursing satisfaction and the quality of provided care. Somewhat, dissatisfied nurses with the job will lead to higher rate of patient’s unsafe effects (Stanton, 2004). Since it discovered that nursing satisfaction is making a chain, advanced of nursing satisfaction lead to high quality of attention and this can lead to patient satisfaction within the treatment (Weiss, 2002). Complementing these studies the other studies have noticeable that low job satisfaction will have an effect on on the quality of care and improve the intend to leave the job among nurses. In addition, this issue is recognized as difficult which facing medical care and attention organizations (Buchan and Aiken, 2008). Therefore, establish job satisfaction defined as:

“A pleasurable emotional state caused by the appraisal of your respective job, an affective reaction to one’s job, and an attitude towards one’s job”(Weiss, 2002).

It disclosed that nursing satisfaction is associated with many several factors which could affect on the quality of care. As the numerous studies have learned that work related factors play an important role in nursing satisfaction. Al-ahmadi, H conducted a report to determine the reason why of job dissatisfaction among Saudi nurses, and she discovered that the job performance and the organizational dedication are strongly have an effect on on the level of job satisfaction. In ’09 2009, Ditzel. E confirmed that the workload is determined as essential factor which reduce the degree of job satisfaction on the list of nurses and business lead to increase the job stress which bring about harmful results. Furthermore, predicated on the review of nine articles Comber and Barriball (2007) have reported that the contributing factors related to the work environment are essential with medical turnover more than the demographic factors. Nurse’s salary is recognized as one of the essential factors of nursing satisfaction. However, some finding stated that nurse’s salary do not have an impact on on their work, While other studies have shown the connection between the salary and degree of job satisfaction among the list of nurses. Trembly et al. , have argued that the in sufficient salary could be a main reason for a few nurses and let them to quit. Personnel development and carrying on education has a substantial impact on nursing ability to create high quality of health care. Educational programs which can be offered by medical health care organizations will improve the level of the data to make a high quality of attention and get rid of the probability of nursing problems. Although previous researchers have recognized that nurses’ professions have various periods, a few documents have recognized that nursing job required different programs to react to their need(Chang, Chou and Cheng, 2007).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

Considering the Patient safety it appears that it is the major source of dissatisfaction to most of the nurses. The nurses were unconfident and experienced guilty as they were unable to provide the appropriate health care (Stanton, 2004). As a result, the idea of job satisfaction is very important as it’ll affect on their level of performance.

Herzberg theory overview

In this section Herzberg’s theory of drive is identified as the most appropriate theory that can raise the degree of nursing satisfaction, and also to supply the patient security. To effectively apply Herzberg theory directly into practice, one must fully establish an understanding of the idea and the idea. So, Herzberg’s theory of job satisfaction and its own feasibility will be evidently described.

Frederick Herzberg’s is a psychologist who creates the idea of desire in the past due of 1959s which is known as two factor theory (Marquis and Huston, 2003). In such a theory, Herzberg used Maslow’s basic theory of inspiration particularly in work desire (Huber, 2006). The idea originated after interviewing two sets of employees to recognize the key reasons of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. From this interview Herzberg elucidates the contributing factors that stimulate the staffs throughout categorizing their individual requirements. Herzberg published a phrase which is said “We can expand. . . by stating that the job satisfiers offer with the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the work dissatisfies deal with the factors which determine the job context. ” (Herzberg, 1959).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

Herzberg says that the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two different phenomenons (Sullivan and Decker, 2005). Furthermore, the idea developed through two measurements to job satisfaction. It really is based on the theory that determination can be divided into hygiene factors and desire factors. Moreover, the theory concludes that there are two kind of inspiration (Syptak, Marsland and Ulmer 1999).

According to Herzberg (1959), Health Factors are not motivates the employees, but these factors can affect on the level of dissatisfaction; in other term, this factors will decrease the dissatisfaction one of the staffs. Hygiene factors incorporate supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, and salary. Hence, these factors are related to the surroundings and lead to dissatisfaction. On the other hands, the motivator factors seems to be the factors that can motivate the staff by gratifying the individuals’ requirements and needs for personal development as they are associated to the job itself. Motivator factors include accomplishment, advancement, identification and responsibility.

It appears that with the adequate cleanliness factors, the staffs would be not dissatisfied and enough motivators have to be existing to improve the amount of job satisfaction (Huber, 2006). It is important to notice that the opposite of dissatisfaction could not be satisfaction as well as the lack of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction (Marquis and Huston, 2003). For example, if the hygiene factors are in low level, the staffs will be unsatisfied, and when the cleanliness factors are in higher level the staffs aren’t dissatisfies, but they are not motivated for higher performance. Conversely, when the motivators are at high level the staffs will be satisfied and offer a high level of quality (Manisera, Dusseldrop and Kooij, 2005).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.


Critical analysis

Herzberg’s theory is good; he completely addressed his theory. This theory of motivation is clear and understandable as it makes the others to comprehend the nature of the job satisfaction by introducing these two factors of determination. Herzberg developed his theory utilizing the research of Maslow, but he focused exclusively on the task structure. However, he didn’t define the concept of job satisfaction, but he identified and states the two factors that influence on the job satisfaction. Herzberg accepted both main factors that are the main component of his theory. Motivator and hygiene factors are simply described and described by Herzberg. This theory is greatly suitable and being found in restructuring and making the task in many organizations, as Herzberg identified the significant needs for the staff to be encouraged and to add to the level of production. Based on the two factors of Herzberg’s theory, Bare (2004) demonstrates that the nurse professionals are deliberating the drive factors when they make and apply the guidelines to recruit and retain the nurses for a long period of time. Furthermore, the managers may also take into consideration the health factors such as salary, as the well paid is normally the solution for long term problems.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

There are nemoures studies have supported herzberg’s theory. Lundberg, Gudmundson and andersson (2009) have examined Herzberg’s theory in hospitality and travel and leisure management. They found that this theory has been used extensively in a number of contexts. For example, a study of Parsons and Broadbride’s (2006) cited by Lundberg, Gudmundson and andersson (2009), they applied herzberg’s classification of intrinsic factors sauch as responsibility, work itself and reputation, and extrinsic factors as working conditions and salary. The significant results reported that there surely is a high level of satisfaction with intrinsic factors, and low degree of satisfaction with extrinsic factors which reveals the agreement with herzberg’s theor. Furthermore, a conducted analysis of Furnham, Forde and Ferrari’s (1999) provided a good example of herzberg’s theory software in a study of personality and work desire, they figured inspiration factors are significant in the workplace, while heygiene factors will be more critical in selecting a job. Beside these studies, herzberg’s two factor theory was applied in a study of nurses satisfaction within nursing crare and work in psychatric units (swedish analysis), it revealed that this theory support the purpose of clinical guidance which experienced a convinced effect on medical satisfaction (Rask and Levander, 2002). Friedlander’s (1963) completed a report that show the contract with herzberg’s theory. In 1963 Friedlander’s analyzed a 17 item questionnaire which measure the value of each item as a reason behind staff satisfaction. In his final result he found that there are three factors, two of these factors were matched up with herzberg’s two factors hyiegene and inspiration, on the other hands the 3rd factor produced from both hyegiene and desire factors. Moreover, an additional review reveald that the results were recognized to herzberg’s theory was conducted by Halpern (1966). Halpern got 93 subject plus they were asked about the facet of liked job over a 7 item scale. Inside the results he found out that there are two points, that are satisfaction with the work itself and achievments opportunities, are reported as the best concerns in a liked job. Furthermore, he added that of his content were satisfied with herzberg’s two factors hyiegene and inspiration similarly.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

However, this theory led to much controversy in the work place. Part of the argument was scheduled to present the salary as a factor that does not are likely involved in job satisfaction (Manisera et al. , 2005), while Trembly et al. , argued that the in satisfactory salary could be a main reason for a few staff for let them to quit. In addition, some critics do not acknowledge the clarity between the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Huber, 2006; Marquis and Huston, 2003; Manisera et al. , 2005). Nevertheless, it appeared that part of the doubt around Herzberg theory is at Herzberg technique and having less identifying the relationship between the two variables. In essence, Herzberg was gathered his data by interviewing and questioning the worker with two situations related with their job experience. First of all, they asked to think of time that they feel satisfied and dissatisfied with the job. Second of all, they asked to go over their situations and identify the factors associated to their satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the work. Lindsay, Markings and Gorlow (1967) have analyzed the Herzberg technique. They reported that Herzberg didn’t control the number of situations form confirmed staff, or either the number of the associated factors of these job. They argued that theory did not state the relation and the consequences between both of these variables which are hygiene and motivator factors to the work satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Furthermore, it found that corresponding to Herzberg distinction in his methodology, he’ll gain different results (Furnham et al. , 1999). it is important to notice that the literature have demonestrated other studies that demonstrated the disagreement with herzberg theory. Lindsay et al. , (1967) uncovered that the results of the study show that the personnel will be happy with their success on employment even if there is a lack in the business insurance policies, or if there are limited environments around the job. However, personnel who do not experience as if they have a great success on their job will be dissatisfied even if the conditions around the work are helpful. Therefore, these results are definitely inconsistent with Herzberg’s debate that there is no relation between the two factors. Furthermore, several studies noticeable that motivator factors are extremely significant more than health factors with regards to satisfaction, while Herzberg did not refer to this point in his theory. Furnham et al. , (1999) suggest that how can this theory used within the organisations without status the difference of person’s gender, culture and age group. However, three main studies shown that their results were supportive with Herzberg’s consequence that hyiegne factors lead to dissatisfaction, and motivator factors lead to satisfaction (Mayers 1964; Saleh 1964; Schewartz, Jenusaitis and Stark, 1963). Moreover, the theory is still valid, applicable, and beneficial to applied in virtually any management organisation (Furnham, et al. , 1999; Lundberg et al. , 2009).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

To summarize, it thought that Herzberg’s theory has been used in various management contexts such as nursing satisfaction, hospitality and tourism management, and in a personality and determination study. Despite of that fact that this theory is useful, it found that there are always a limitation in this particular theory within the strategy and the relation between these two factors where few studies declare that there is a relation.

Theory into practice:

Basically, using Herzberg theory in any health care firm will stimulate the personnel and increase their level of satisfaction. Considering the two factors theory, the organizations will be noticed a a great deal of changes among their personnel on various levels (Byrne, 2006).

Herzberg’s theory is widely used in the management and nursing organizations. For instance, this theory is utilized to increase nursing satisfaction in psychiatric unit. Applying Herzberg theory in Ruler Abdul Aziz School Hospital (KAAUH) to increase the degree of satisfaction will be as pursuing:

Hygiene factors:

Despite the actual fact that cleanliness factors (insurance policy, supervision, interpersonal relationship, work place, and salary) aren’t considering as the foundation of the job satisfaction, it’s important to treat these factors effectively in KAAUH to generate a good environment with satisfied personnel and high quality of care.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

The health care policy is vital in any health care organization. Moreover, the goal of the insurance plan is to provide a course of action or instructions to guide decisions and achieve the organization outcomes, improve the quality of care and attention, and personnel satisfaction (Huber 2006). However, the nurses’ participation in medical policy at KAAUH is very important as it influences on the nurses health care and the job itself. Nurses’ involvement in the health policy as coverage makers will make significant changes in the nursing practice, education, tasks and functions. It found that the nursing practice comes with an impact on health care coverage (Finkelman 2006; McCloskey, 2004). Because of this, the contribution of nurses in health policy is significant in order to raise the amount of job satisfaction.

Although nursing participation in the health policy is vital, the health treatment policies can be considered a way to obtain dissatisfaction among the staff nurses (Syptak et al. , 1999). However, the coverage at KAUH should be clear, easy and really should be followed. Furthermore, it’s important that the insurance plan should be appropriate, and accessible for all the staff with manual copies in each term. Furthermore, the plans must be modified and be based upon the evidence structured researchers to enhance the quality of care and attention and patients basic safety.

With respect to clinical guidance, it seems that it strongly impact on job satisfaction, turnover, and the grade of good care ( Kristiina, Kaija and Riina, 2006). In the terms of increase the job satisfaction among new qualified nurses at KAUH, a mentorship program can be applied effectively to reduce the turnover rate and raise the degree of performance. Mentorship is known as supportive relationship known between the mentor and the mentee, where in fact the knowledge, skills, and experience are shared through the guidance role (Curtis, 2003). Consequently, Mentors play a critical role in aiding, teaching and examining the practice which lead to increase medical satisfaction and improve the quality of good care and patient’s safety (ButtelWorth, 1995). To be able to provide an enough supervision in the specialized medical area, there are some tasks for the supervision. The supervisor at KAAUH should give a clear and positive responses to make the staffs feel that they can trust their supervisor. Furthermore, the reliable and fairly approach to measure the staff performance is very significant concern to consider in this hospital. In addition, this role required control skills to take care of with all personnel equally (ButtelWorth, 1995; Syptak et al. , 1999).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

Considering the social relation at KAAUH, it could be observed through the process of socializing. With the important role of the nurse administrator, there will be an interpersonal connections between the personnel to mention knowledge, value, and promoting each other to attain their goals (Huber2006). Furthermore, it’s important to notice that socializing is very essential process specifically with the new certified nurses, to have a successful work changeover, and reduce the risk of getting impact at KAAUH (Huber 2006). Therefore, the staffs can cultivate their teamwork by their socializing (Syptak et al. , 1999).

It is important to note that the working environment comes with an impact on the level of quality treatment and patient safety (Rashotte, 2008). Therefore, medical care organization at KAAUH should provide a healthy work place for the nurses to be happy with the amount of giving care and attention and improve the quality. Moreover, all the facilities, and required equipments are essential to be available with an appropriate allocation of the staff and satisfactory nurse patient ratio to stay away from the possibility of overload. Furthermore, beside the physical environment, it is important that the organization at KAUH should encourage the personnel to assume that their role is very critical in providing the health care to increase their self confidence and self-confidence. It could be seen that through the staff’s contribution directly into practice, and good romantic relationship with the other healthcare professions to are teamwork, will resulted in a positive outcomes and high quality of look after the patients (Boughton, 2009; Rashotte, 2008; Syptak et al. , 1999).

Salary is considered as a controversial matter one of the nurses and medical attention organizations. The personnel at KAAUH would like to be paid similarly and fairly and not rely upon the nationalities as the Indian and Filipino’s salary are less that Saudi’s salary. In addition, if the staffs are not well paid they will not be satisfied with their work (swansburg. J and swansburg. C, 1999).Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.

2. Motivator factors:

Motivation factors ( responsibility, achievement, rewarding) are significant factors to be happy with the staff performance. However, the staff can be happy with these factors only when the staff begins to the work, as opposed to hygiene factors which do not known how much the effort is.

One way of increasing the amount of job satisfaction and motivate staff nurses in KAAUH is by giving them the flexibility and the power to execute their tasks. Therefore, they’ll believe that they have the capability and dependable within the quality of the good care. Generally, as they become advance in their work they will add more responsibility. However, the added responsibility should be significant and exciting and not in sequence of overload. For instance, the nurse manger can stimulate their employees in the conditions of increasing the accountability through the delegation process to build up new skills (Syptak et al. , 1999).

Achievement is the staff’s aspect within the task and in the beginning of their job to be succeeded. To assist them in KAAUH, it is very important that the employees are allocated in the right position, to allow them to practice their skills, knowledge, and steer clear of the chance of work overload. Additionally, goals, regulations, and specifications at KAAUH should be clear for the personnel nurses to check out. Furthermore, the staffs must be given a frequent, timely feedback how they can be doing within the task. Therefore, when the people have a success and achievements with the task at KAAUH, they need to be recognized for their achievement. Popularity of job performance is vital to staff nurse self confidence and self esteem. It seems that acknowledgement and reward nurses achievements for a good handling of the situations are incredibly significant concern to be considered by the nurse director at KAAUH (Syptak et al. , 1999; Coughlin, 2000).

In conditions of satisfying the staff because of their achievement, it made an appearance as a good motivator to raise the level of their satisfaction at KAUH. However, there are different types of rewarding the staff nurses. The rewards can be financial and non-financial. Financial is economic while the non-financial is a emotional rewards. Rewarding staff in KAAUH by giving the ability of continuing education is one type in relation to the advancement. Corresponding to Gieter et al. , (2006) they showed that the non-financial and mental rewards are definitely more important than the financial rewards. It could be obvious that with the introduction of clinical advancement team in KAAUH, participating of education department and the role of the nurse managers to reward their staff in a healthcare facility, the nurses will have the opportunity to enhance their level of practice through several training or conferences, knowledge, and the opportunity to conduct medical research by encouraging them as an incentive for their achievements.

To conclude, making use of Herzberg’s theory into KAAUH seems to experience some complications. Through this corporation it is difficult to keep up a socializing between your staff. As a result of nursing shortage, there is absolutely no time for the staff to be socialized even though it is hard for the nurse manager to make an arrangement for it. Additionally, it appeared that rewarding system or department is not existed in this clinic, which requires an administrative support to develop it. However, while making use of this theory, it appears that there’s a considerable relationship between cleanliness and motivator factors which is not described by Herzberg. Nevertheless, it pays to and applicable with salary, supervision, working environment, plan, and resposibility to give a high productivity level.Factors Impacting on the Global Medical Shortage Essay.