Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay

Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay

Every day, as many as 4,000 infants and young children die worldwide because they are not breastfed. According to UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), it is because their mothers are not empowered with adequate knowledge about breastfeeding and do not receive enough motivation and support. Babies, their mothers, their families, their community, their environment, even the economy of the country in which they live, all benefit from breastfeeding.Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay

Breastfeeding and Supplementary Feeding


1. Breastfeeding in rural countries

2. Breastfeeding in developed countries

B. WHO Recommendations

1. WHO Code (Definition of Terms)

2. DOH (Philippines)

C. Factors Influencing duration of breastfeeding

1. Demographic Factors a. Mother’s age b. Parity c. Subsequent pregnancy d. Birth order of child

e. Sex of the child f. Residence
2. Socioeconomic Factors

a. Mother’s Education b. Mother’s Occupation c. Father’s Education
d. Household economic status

3. Health Service Factors

a. Antenatal care visits

b. Place of delivery and mode of delivery c. Advice from health personnel
4. Conceptual Framework

IV. Personal Overview and Conclusion

Breast milk: The most suitable food for human newborn. The benefits of breastfeeding
There are loads of benefits we can get from the natural way of giving food to babies. It can be emotional, physical, psychological and economical.

Lack of breast stimulation, as well as several other physiological factors can cause a drop in breast milk production.
The suction is an important stimulus for milk production. The number of feedings greatly influences the amount of milk. Breasts that are emptied frequently produce more milk than breasts that are not. Not only is it important for the baby to nurse often, but it should also drink as much breast milk as possible to positively influence the milk production.

The following can adversely affect the breast stimulation and thus milk production:Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay

Stress / Anxiety (may decrease production and milk ejection reflex);
Separation of mother and child (eg, return to work, school);
Hormonal imbalance (thyroid gland, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes type 1 or 2);
New pregnancy;
Insufficient breast tissue (tube-shaped breasts);
Surgery to the breast or nipple;
Mother who does not wake up (drugs, alcohol, medication);
Breast injury/bad breastfeeding position;
Misuse of the teat (less efficient stimulation);
Poor nutrition of the mother (less than 1500 calories per day).
Using commercial infant formula and a baby bottle;
Baby refusing the breast (rapid flow, flat nipple, large nipple);
Baby sleeping for long periods or that does not wake up (jaundice, prematurity, certain medication);
Long periods between feedings (baby does not wake up at night);
Weak suction (premature baby, sick baby, trisomy 21);
Short tongue frenulum.
The consequence of insufficient milk production is that the baby will not gain weight normally. It is therefore important to refer to a physician or a nutritionist. A healthcare professional will be able to identify the cause of insufficient milk production, and thus to better advise breastfeeding women. Additional resources for breastfeeding support are also available.Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay

According to the World Health Organization, breastfeeding is natural and the
most effective way of nourishment to feed infants and young children to ensure child
health and survival. Currently, the World Health Organization, the American Academy
of Pediatrics, and other health organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding through
the first 6 months of life. Although exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the
occurrence of adverse health outcomes to the infant and mother, the duration of exclusive
breastfeeding remains relatively low in the United States. The theory of planned
behavior was used as a theoretical framework for this study. The purpose of the project
was to identify the barriers to exclusive breastfeeding among mothers during the first 4
weeks after delivery. A descriptive research design and a convenient sampling method
were used to conduct this study. A questionnaire was used to collect the data from 75
mothers who met the inclusion criteria and who attended three selected obstetric and
gynecologic private practice physicians’ offices. Data analysis was performed by using
descriptive and correlational statistics. The findings showed that only eight mothers
continued exclusive breastfeeding during the first 4 weeks postpartum. The major
maternal problems identified for not continuing exclusive breastfeeding were (a)
insufficient breast milk, (b) sore or painful nipples, (c) return to work or school, and (d)
poor latching. Findings suggested that healthcare professionals use the model of theory
of planned behavior to develop interventions that promote a positive attitude toward
breastfeeding. A positive attitude toward breastfeeding will create a social change within
the community to promote exclusive breastfeeding.
Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Mothers During the
First Four Weeks Postpartum
Jessy Thomas
Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of

Breastfeeding is generally considered by health professionals as the ideal feeding
practice for infants. It is the first communication pathway between the mother and her
infant. This study was designed to describe breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, practice
and influencing factors among breastfeeding mothers in Bemidji, MN. This crosssectional study allowed the researcher to determine trends and other information about
the sample in the Bemidji area. The participants for this study were breastfeeding mothers
who gave a birth at Sanford Health located in Bemidji, MN. A written data collection
instrument containing forty nine questions was used to collect data. The findings of this
study showed that the participants were knowledgeable about breastfeeding and that they
had positive attitudes toward breastfeeding. Also, the findings indicated that most of the
mothers had received help from hospital staff regarding breastfeeding practice and most
of the mothers had breastfed their baby just after birth or in less than one hour after birth.
Human breast milk is uniquely suited to our biologic needs and remains the best source of nutrition for the human infant (Kunz et al , 1999). It provides the necessary support for the developing immune system (Goldman et al., 1994 ; Garofalo and Goldman, 1999). The powerful anti-infective qualities of breast milk are measured by decreased infant mortality in developing countries where exclusive breastfeeding is the norm (Scariati et al, 1997 ; Ball and Wright, 1999).Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay
The human breast milk is composed of about 6% carbohydrates, about 4% fats, about 1% proteins and about 89% water. The composition of human milk is very different than artificial milk or “formula”. Most artificial breast milk products use bovine milk as a substrate. The latter has more proteins and less lactose when compared to human milk (Kunz, et al ,1999). Lactose levels correlate well with brain size across species. Given their large brain size, it is not surprising that humans have a higher concentration of lactose in their milk than any other species (Newton, 2004).
From the Islamic religion point of view, although it is recommended to prolong adequate lactation for up to two years, Prophet Mohamed pointed that the milk of the pregnant women is harmful for the infants and strongly advised that pregnant mothers should never breastfeed their infants.
The aim of this study was to compare milk composition in lactating pregnant and lactating non-pregnant mothers in order to know to what extent could pregnancy affect milk composition, and how this could be reflected on both child development and health.
The Benefits of Breast Feeding Since the invention of formula mothers have had trouble deciding how best to go about feeding their children. Each mother has their own preferred feeding technique, some of whom chose to use both feeding methods depending on the situation. For some mothers breast feeding is not a viable option for reasons such as lactation issues, busy schedules, and secondary care givers (Health Psychology). For those mothers whom are able and willing to breast feed their infants there is a definite benefit. Breast feeding is shown to benefit the mother and child through its natural ability to aide in the mother’s inner peace, its health giving properties, its superior nutrient content compared to formula, and accessibility. Though breast feeding is undoubtedly the optimum feeding method, it is not necessarily a possibility for some mothers (The Nemours Foundation). For example couples who choose to adopt children are obviously not able to breast feed their child because the mother is not lactating. Other mothers just simply do not have the time to breast feed their children because they are busy running errands (Health Psychology). Factors Affecting Contents Of Breast Milk Essay