Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing
A manager’s power base refers to the method that the manager uses to influence the subordinates. The power base is manifested through five main approaches. Firstly, coercive approach that entails forcing the subordinates to comply with the set orders through threat of being punished. Secondly, legitimate approach that entails leveraging the belief that the manager has the right and is entitled to issue orders based on the position. Thirdly, reward approach that entails giving out some sort of reward to subordinates for following instructions. Fourthly, referent approach that is derived from the subordinates respecting and desiring to identify with and emulate the manager. Finally, expert approach that involves the subordinates believing that the manager has highly specialized skill set or particularly high level of knowledge (Milstead and Short, 2019). Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing
Managers need power in order to function in the work environment and do their jobs as they would need to influence others. Consequently, managers who are powerless and unable to influence others would be under tremendous stress and frustration. The position of authority confers power the manager, but the individual cannot solely rely on the formal authority to influence others. To develop the power base, the managers must rely on the formal authority from the position in addition to inspiring and moralizing subordinates. Also, the power can be developed through personal appeal, charisma, performing a critical role, likeability, persuasive ability, credibility, and becoming an expert. Once a manager has a power base, it can be applied through interpersonal influence strategies that include reasoning, exchanges and pressure (Stanley, 2017).
Upstream influence refers to factors that play a fundamental role in health outcomes to include equities/inequities, risk exposure, and advantage/disadvantage. They represent important opportunities for improving health and reducing disparities. There are three influence tactics categories associated with upstream influence. Firstly, equities/inequities that considers links between health and inequities stemming from socio-demographic factors, such as disability status, sexual orientation, gender, and immigration/class status. Secondly, risk exposure approach that considers the link between health and sensitive/critical periods in exposure to risk (such as intergenerational transfer of advantages and past childhood experiences) as well as cumulative exposure. The potential causal link may be derived from how the social status regulates the genes that control physiologic functions such as immune functioning. Thirdly, advantage/disadvantage approach that focuses on the link between health and other factors such as wealth, income, education, working conditions, neighborhood conditions, health conditions, racism and ethnicity/race. The potential causal link is the role of stress that is related to coping with the mentioned factors (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2020).
The University of Michigan studies and Ohio State University studies explore behavioral leadership approaches/models. The University of Michigan studies began in the 1950s and focused on determining the methods and principles of leadership that lead to job satisfaction and productivity. The studies identified two types of leadership behaviors. Firstly, production orientation that noted the stress on production and technical aspects of the job that personnel perceive as a means of getting work done. Secondly, employee orientation that noted the stress on human-relations aspect of the job that the personnel perceive as the personal needs of human needs. Leaders with production orientation were noted to focus on the technical/task aspect of their jobs, while leaders with an employee orientation were noted to exhibit genuine concern for interpersonal relations. The University of Michigan studies concluded that applying an employee orientation to management alongside close supervision would improve outcomes (Virkus, 2009a).
Ohio State University studies began in the late 1940s. They explored leadership and management, and noted that two clusters of behaviors were associated with successful leadership and that the specific outcomes would dependent on the leadership context. Firstly, consideration behaviors that included building camaraderie, respect, mutual trust, and friendship. These are relationship behaviors. Secondly, initial structure that includes ways of getting the job done, channels of communication, establishing well-defined patterns of organization, defining roles/relationships, and organizing work. These are task behaviors. The studies determined that the two behaviors are independent and distinct (Virkus, 2009b). Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing
The path-goal model of leadership concerns that the behavior of a leader is contingent on the performance, motivation and satisfaction of the subordinates. In this case, the job of the manager/leader is perceived as guiding subordinates to choose the best path for reaching the personal and organizational goals. The model argues that a leader will engage in different types of leadership behaviors depending on the circumstances, demands and nature of the situation at hand. The leader has the job of assisting subordinates to attain goals and provides the support and direction needed to ensure that the goals are compatible with those of the organization. Besides that, the model assumes that a leader must be flexible enough to change the leadership style as required by the prevailing situation. Overall, the model encapsulates the need for leaders to have distinct roles, responsibilities and traits, and have the capacity to compensate for any potential deficiencies in skills as reported among the subordinates (Finkelman, 2019).
The expectancy theory of motivation ties to the assumptions of the path-goal model of leadership. The theory argues that the strength of the tendency to act in a specific way is dependent on the strength of the expectation that the action will pave the way for the specific outcome and the attractiveness of the outcome. In applying the theory, a subordinate would be motivated to exert significant effort if it is believed that the effort will be well appraised, a good appraisal will be accompanied by rewards from the organization, and the organization rewards will satisfy personal needs/goals. The model links to the theory as they present an understanding of the relationship between performance and effort, between rewards and performance, and between individual satisfaction and rewards. The subordinate would be motivated if there is a personal belief that there is a positive correlation between performance and efforts, favorable performance will result in a desirable outcome, the rewards would satisfy important personal needs, and there is a strong desire to satisfy the need and this makes the effort worthwhile (Finkelman, 2019).
Leadership-follower phenomenon has been an intriguing human behavior, and this has generated much research interest. Despite the interest, it is still unclear why some individuals become leaders while others become followers. There has been extensive literature on the subject, and yet there is still no consensus as to why and under what circumstances some people become leaders while others become followers. There is so much to consider when studying leadership styles and approaches thus making efforts to define and explain leadership, its controversies and theories a monumental task. The effort required is monumental with the search for answers continuing even as the questions change. However, the controversies generated from studying leadership styles and approaches creates the basis for discovery and examination. Even as the controversies present, they present some hard questions that force reexamination of past thought processes (Finkelman, 2019). Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing
Finkelman, A. (2019). Professional Nursing Concepts: Competencies for Quality Leadership (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Milstead, J. & Short, N. (2019). Health Policy and Politics: A Nurse’s Guide (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2020). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community. Elsevier, Inc.
Stanley, D. (2017). Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare: Values into Action (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Virkus, S. (2009a). Leadership Models: The University of Michigan Studies. https://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/Leadership/Leadership%20Models/the_university_of_michigan_studies.html
Virkus, S. (2009b). Leadership Models: Ohio State University Study. https://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/Leadership/Leadership%20Models/ohio_state_university_study.html
Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing