Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay
Evidence-Based Medicine is a process that entails making clinical decisions based on some evidence that is gathered through various processes. EBM is a process that entails five major steps. The evidences are assigned levels depending on their validity, applicability to patients and the methodological quality (Ackley, 2008). Depending on the level assigned to given evidence, decisions are made based on the level of evidence. Such is important in ensuring the best clinical decisions are meant to meet the goals of the EBM. The goal of the EBM is to improve the clinical services through application of unique treatments to specific patients depending on their needs. The cornerstone to EBM is hierarchizing the evidence. Therefore, the paper at hand will analyze and discuss the Evidence-Based Medicine. Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay.
As said earlier, EBM is a process, and sequential. Firstly, a question is formulated, a step that involves analytical framework to identify links between outcomes and factors, which helps identify and focus on a specific question. The second step in the process is gathering and classifying evidence. The step involves establishing a search plan and an intense literature review. At this point exclusions and inclusions are identified and such helps in developing a comprehensive and specific search (Haynes Devereaux & Guyatt, 2011). The results are documented and assessed. The third step in the process is risk bias, which entails to critically appraise each article to validate them for methodological quality. Each article is evaluated based on Quality Criteria Checklist (QCC). The fourth step in the EBM is summarizing the evidence. In this step, the web-based data extraction template is used to extract data from all the included articles, and then the extracted data is coherently and briefly summarized in an easy-to-read summary. The final step in the EBM process is writing and grading the conclusion statement. In this last step, a pithy and concise statement is made for the research question developed in step one, and the statement is graded (Burns, Rohrich & Chung, 2011). Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay.
There are many players involved in EBM, and all play important roles that are vital for its success. Firstly, the government helps in regulations and enforcement of given policies into law, for example the enforcement of vaccinations. Secondly, the clinicians and the researchers have the responsibility of getting solutions to given problems that need to be addressed, or situations that need to be improved. They are therefore directly involved in getting the evidence (Ball, et al., 2013). Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay. Then the physicians tests and administers the solution to given patients, after which the patients are examined for some time. After it has been proven to work, the policy is passed into law. The role of the society is now abiding by the clinical policies that are developed based on the EBM findings. Therefore, different parties are involved and play different roles all which are important in improving health care services.
There are about seven levels of evidence, namely level i up to level Vii (Burns Rohrich & Chung, 2011). These levels are summarized in the table below. The ranking is based on the evidence available, because some evidences are stronger than others. Therefore, evidence is used deliberately because of its varying strengths. Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay.
|Level of Evidence||Description|
|Level 1||Evidence from meta-analysis of the useful evidence-based clinical practices or randomized controlled trials based on systematic reviews of more than three RCTs of good quality that have similar results.|
|Level II||Evidence for a large multi-site RCT, or any other well-designed RCT|
|Level III||For example, evidence from quasi-experimental. i.e. evidence from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.|
|Level IV||Evidence from cohort studies or well-designed case control|
|Level V||Evidence from meta-synthesis|
|Level VI||Evidence from a single qualitative study or descriptive study|
|Level VII||Evidence from experts’ reports and opinion of authorities|
According to Sneha (2015), many people feel that the United States health care system is not stable. The ACA implemented in 2010, was not under thorough consultations, and it is said that other that American Medical Association no other major body was consulted. Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay. Most physicians feel that the body that was consulted in establishing the ACA does not represent the. According to the article by Sneha, the physicians thinks that the system is inflexible, and the medics have no control of the direction in which the health care takes place. It is therefore a major fault in the system in that the very people who are directly linked to the delivery of health care services have no control of the system that guides them.
As seen, the health care personnel have little control of the system in the USA. The system here is the ACA policy passed in 2010. Therefore, the inability of the physicians to control the systems disadvantages the EBM in that the procedures deem best for EBM are controlled by the system that the key players of the EBM cannot control. Therefore this is a major constraint of the ACA to EBM. In conclusion, the EBM policy is that based on the expertly collected evidence, health care deliveries be improved. The evidences are categorized in seven levels depending on the strength of the evidence and decisions are given priority depending on the level of evidence.
Ackley, B. J. (2008). Evidence-based nursing care guidelines: Medical-surgical interventions. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Ball, L., Johnson, C., Desbrow, B., & Leveritt, M. (2013). General practitioners can offer effective nutrition care to patients with lifestyle-related chronic disease. Journal of primary health care, 5(1), 59-69.= Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay.
Burns, P., Rohrich, R., & Chung, K. (2011). The Levels of Evidence and Their Role in Evidence-Based Medicine. Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery, 128(1), 305-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/prs.0b013e318219c171
Haynes, R. B., Devereaux, P. J., & Guyatt, G. H. (2011). Clinical expertise in the era of evidence-based medicine and patient choice. Evidence Based Medicine, 7(2), 36-38.
Sneha, K. (2015). What the ACA Should Have Included—Physician Perspectives at the University of Pennsylvania. The AMA Journal Of Ethic, 17(7), 680-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2015.17.7.sect2-1507. Evidence-Based Medicine Policy Analysis essay