Name with CREDENTIALS
Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health
NURS 6050 Section number
Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
This is just an example do not follow the citations etc…..
This is just to show you what we are looking for.
Childhood obesity is a rising problem worldwide problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that childhood obesity is one of the “most serious public health challenges of the 21st century” (Howard, 2019). Obesity in children and adolescents is expected to exceed the occurrence of those that are underweight and malnourished in the world by the year 2022 (Howard). According to the WHO, the number of obese children in the world increased from 32 to 41 million over the past 25 years (“GHO”, n.d.). In 2016, the obesity rate in children under the age of 5 in the United States was 22.7 and 18 percent in children over the age of five (“GHO”). New Zealand’s rates of childhood obesity are very similar to the United States, with 20.6 percent of children under the age of 5 and 15 percent in the childhood population over 5 years old (“GHO”). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the global health impact of childhood obesity as well as compare the United States with New Zealand on obesities impact, policy implementation, and plans to improve this rising health dilemma. Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
Global Health Comparison Grid Template
Global Healthcare Issue
Childhood obesity is on the rise in the United States and across the world. Measuring obesity in children can be difficult due to the fact that they are constantly changing and growing (Howard). It is also difficult to make comparisons due to the fact that different locations vary in their methods for data collection, measuring, and reporting of children’s Body Mass Index (Howard). However, regardless of the way data is collected and measured, studies have proven multiple negative health effects that occur from obesity. Children that are obese are endanger of physical and emotional risk factors that are linked to obesity. Health impacts include higher risks factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breathing disorders such as asthma as well as joint and gastro-intestinal disorders (“Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences”, 2016). Emotional risk factors such as anxiety, depression, and bullying are also associated with childhood obesity (“Childhood Obesity Causes…”). Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods, poor sleep habits, and lack of physical activity and sedentary lifestyles (“Childhood Obesity Causes…”). Making better diet choices along with better sleep habits and increased physical activity can help prevent and improve a child’s risk or existence of obesity (“Childhood Obesity Causes…”). Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue
Multiple policies exist in the U.S., including bans on advertisements of fast food restaurants that target children, taxing beverages containing added calorie sweeteners, and incorporating after school activity programs (Ashe, et al., 2014).
A program with three focuses and 22 initiatives under those focuses (“Childhood Obesity Plan”, n.d.). They concentrate on interventions for the already obese, support and education to those at risk, and approaches to make healthier choices easier for citizens (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). The minister also held a forum with processed food and beverage industries (“Childhood Obesity Plan”).
What are the strengths of this policy?
The policy addresses all the key factors that are proven to lead to obesity. They are also federal programs which have a better chance at reaching the population than state policies (Swinburn, 2008).
A very detailed program addressing multiple facets of obesity. Programs were created to place children who are identified as obese into a referral program (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). This program allows children and families access to information and education about how to eat health, get more physical activity, and improve health overall (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). It actually involves the children and their parents in activities they can enjoy together at least 60 minutes a day the majority of the days of the week (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). Education initiatives are included for healthcare providers and teachers to bring education to the community (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). Also, it addresses interventions for at risk groups such as gestational diabetes (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
What are the weaknesses of this policy?
It doesn’t account for economic effects. Studies show that lower income individuals have the highest occurrence of obesity (Ashe, et al.).
Lower income individuals usually have less access to public transportation with more fast food restaurants (Swinburn). Low income individuals usually have less ability, whether financial or geographical, to access fitness facilities (Swinburn).
Foods that help improve energy and are high in nutrition have a lower margin for marketing making it harder to reach the public (Swinburn). Research suggests that people are likely to choose things that provide instant gratification rather than focusing on long term benefits making it more difficult to create compliance of the public (Swinburn).
EVERY SECTION NEEDS CITATIONS
There is an increased risk of placing a stigma on obese children by singling them out into programs (Swinburn). This can therefore increase risks of bullying and decreasing self-esteem by marking kids to place them into programs (Swinburn). Ultimately, parents make the final decisions on a child’s diet and ability to increase activity (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). If parents do not take the time and effort to increase quality of food and physical activity, children cannot control what they are exposed to at a young age.
EVERY SECTION NEEDS CITATIONS
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)
In the United States, parents and children are often express feeling busy or rushed all the time. They have little free time from jobs and activities. Busy schedules and long work hours make unhealthy eating habits an easy choice for meal planning and make finding time to exercise difficult. Also, the majority of obesity seen in the U.S. is in low income populations (Ashe, et al.). High nutrient foods are usually more expensive (Ashe, et al.). Parents may struggle with ability to afford healthier eating habits. Low income neighborhoods also have decreased access to places for physical activity (Ashe, et al.). Furthermore, children might not have the ability to increase activity due to parents working long hours or multiple jobs. Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
Certain cultures place a stigma on social situations. Some cultures expect someone hosting dinner to over serve (Swinburn). Certain dishes eaten have a status or value placed on them and may not necessarily be high in nutrients (Swinburn). Also, guests may be inclined to over indulge due to societal implications believing eating a lot is a form of manners (Swinburn). These habits are influenced and learned by children from their parents. Certain cultures limit physical activity of women and girls based on it not being considered culturally appropriate (Swinburn).
How has each country’ government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue?
Taxes were applied to beverages that added calorie sweetness to their ingredients (Ashe, et al.). The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) funded 6.3 million toward projects to fight childhood obesity (National Institute of Food and Agriculture, n.d.). This funding is by means of the NIFA’s Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) which was approved by the 2014 Farm Bill (National Institute of Food and Agriculture). In regard to access, the interventions in these policies are aimed at decreasing exposure to products that increase risk factors of obesity. However, increasing physical activity is not well identified in success of reaching those in lower income levels with poor access to facilities and programs. The WellPoint Foundation gave $3.2 million to strengthen the OASIS Institutes CATCH program which allows mentors to perform increased physical activity programs with children after school in efforts to spur healthy habits (National Institute of Food and Agriculture). Evaluation of Childhood Obesity
EVERY SECTION NEEDS CITATIONS
Program focuses on populations where activity is low. Funding will be provided to research where involvement is low in order to increase activity in these areas (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). They established a health promotion foundation to fund programs and research (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). They are also created centers of excellence to monitor and evaluate the programs quality and effectiveness (“Childhood Obesity Plan”). Access as stated above, is focused on enrolling children in programs that are already obese (“Childhood Obesity Plan”).
EVERY SECTION NEEDS CITATIONS Evaluation of Childhood Obesity