Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.



HIV and infectious diseases is a hypersensitive concern that has prompted the introduction of additional regulations to safeguard the mental and psychological needs of the clients. Ethical values quite simply guide ethical patterns and do. Various moral concerns have been discovered since the introduction of HIV.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Ethical Principles

Basic guidelines that guide medical habit include value for individuals, justice and beneficence (Angel, 1998). Fundamentally, these are achieved through keeping assurances, upholding esteem and maintaining confidentiality (Wolf, 2001). Other honest rules include utilitarian perspective and the ethic of nurturing (Wolf, 2001).Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.


Ethical Issues

Confidentiality. Generally, all medical information and data are anticipated to be maintained confidential. Gostin et al (1997) implies that the sensitive mother nature of information related to HIV and other attacks have prompted creation of additional laws to safeguard the affected clients. There are exceptions however that allow the healthcare workers to report instances to healthcare authorities (Gostin et al, 1997); the necessity to disclose the status to the people at risk (Gostin & Webber, 1998); the situation relating to afflicted healthcare staff that rested in the forming of a panel of experts that restrict the actions of the afflicted workers or advise the patients of these position (Kass, et al, 1996; Lurie & Wolfe, 1999; Vocalist et al, 2006; Varmus & Satcher, 1999); prenatal tests that has created routine testing to all or any pregnant ladies (Connor et al, 2004, Levine 1998 ; Sargent, 2000)

End of life issues. Ferriman (2001) ascertains that this existed through the primary times of the emergence of HIV when it had the capacity to develop directly into a terminal disease in a brief period of time. Availability of effective ARVs has modified the situation (Lurie & Wolfe, 1999). However, it still influences populations with limited resources. Palliative treatment is essential.

Vaccine Research. Wolf and Berkey (2000) signify that the minority are used in trials. Wolf (2001) records that the populations have wrong expectations about the possibility of being treated. Vaccines have unfavorable influences on the immunity of the members. Individuals may be refused travel rights because of the health implications of the vaccine. There eligibility of taking on certain careers is damaged. Gostin and Webber (1998 show that sometimes the individuals are labeled very vulnerable to infection. This has far reaching implications n their action. Confidentiality is often breeched by the researchers.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Research ethics. Feriman (2001) highlights that the participants aren’t given vital information prior to analyze. In other situations, their consent is not searched for. Healthcare providers contribute to the myths (Gostin, 2000). Patients are not enlightened about the implications of the research. Commitment by patients makes them to avoid informing themselves of the necessary procedures. Patients sometimes provide information in return for better services from the medical care in future. Medical care providers starting research place higher emphasis on financial benefits as opposed to the hobbies of the patients.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.


It is clear that the honest principles of esteem for people, justice and beneficence provide essential assistance in healthcare. Furthermore, the utilitarian point of view and the ethic of nurturing also provide essential guidance to medical action. Notably, these allow the clinicians to interact with HIV positive patients and the ones with infectious diseases in a lasting manner. Honest concerns such as confidentiality, end of life, informed consent, vaccine research, research design and turmoil of interest characterize the connections between patients with infectious diseases such as HIV and clinicians.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.


Patients have to be informed with their legal rights preceding to tests. Pretest strategies and counseling have to be upheld. In regards to to HIV vaccine research, it is important that the studies be completed on a inhabitants that is internationally representative. Finally, it would be very important to the researchers undertaking medical research about infectious diseases to be guided by fundamental specialized medical ethics



The sensitivity that is associated with HIV positive clients, infectious diseases and relative information requires the clinicians to uphold a higher amount of morality when interacting with the patients at different levels. Since the introduction of the epidemic, various ethical concerns have been determined in different instances. In order to ensure that the wellbeing of the patients and healthcare providers is guarded, procedures have been carried out to handle the concerns accordingly. Indeed, it is worth acknowledging that the subconscious wellbeing of the HIV positive patients plays a critical role in their all natural wellbeing. Physical wellbeing can be achieved if the patients are completed with the greatest level of health care.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

It is from this background that this newspaper explores the honest issues involving HIV positive clients and other infectious diseases handled by the health department guidelines. To be able to boost a harmonic concern, the paper starts by underscoring the essential ethical guidelines underpinning medical and comparative research. Then, it exhaustively reviews several ethical concerns and comes up with recommendations that would effectively talk about the ethical issues.

Ethical Principles

Clinical work and related research is governed by various honest and moral key points that guide professional tendencies and do. When coping with folks that are HIV positive or people that have other infectious diseases, it is vital to observe these principles as they make the patients feel treasured and cared for. Of great importance is the moral value that these beliefs enhance. In particular, Angell (1998) signifies that respect for people, justice and beneficence are fundamental ideals that govern any form of medical interaction.

The value of admiration for persons requirements that the decisions and autonomy of other individuals be upheld. In addition, this basic principle postulates that people that absence autonomy and those that are unable to make indie decisions be protected. Justice requires that persons irrespective of their position be cured in a good manner. The ideal state of justice is characterized by equal syndication of the burdens and benefits within the world. Finally, beneficence imposes upon the clinicians a responsibility to do something in the passions of the patients. To be able to achieve this Wolf (2000) asserts that the capability to keep promises, uphold respect and keep maintaining a high amount of confidentiality is vital.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Other ethical rules you can use to steer the do of clinicians in this field are the utilitarian point of view and the ethic of caring (Wolf, 2001). The ex – places focus on the consequences of the activities and postulates that clinical behavior can only be morally suitable if its consequences are attractive and improve the greatest best for a lot of the population. The last mentioned on the other side judges the actions based on the effect they have on connections. However, Wolf (2000) suggests that a few of these principles conflict and for that reason can not be applied jointly. Furthermore, it is distinctive that some ideas can not be applied in a few situations. The clinicians should therefore ponder the relevance of your principle to a situation before applying it. That is important to avoid conflicts that will probably stem from request of multiple ideas. Of great importance however is to ensure that the best degree of good for the greatest bulk is obviously upheld.

Ethical Issues

Over time, various moral concerns have arisen from the connection between HIV positive patients and clinicians. Confidentiality is one such issue that has been considered to be very important in this regard. Generally, regulations provides that all medical information be treated with a high degree of confidentiality. However, Gostin et al (1997) shows that the sensitive dynamics of information related to HIV and other infectious diseases has prompted various state governments to adopt relevant laws that provide additional coverage to the same. These regulations prevent disclosure of information related to HIV without prior authorization. However, as suggested earlier, there are different contexts that might require that such information be disclosed without the data and/ or authorization of the patients. In essence, such steps are considered honest as they seek to improve the greatest good for the greatest percentage of a people.

To start with, the law allows the medical care personnel to article HIV infections to relevant consumer heath regulators. Gostin (2000) contends that the advantages of this reporting basically outweigh the risk discrimination of the contaminated specific. Usually, the name of the individual is not provided during reporting. However, epidemiological studies show that for intervention actions to yield ideal results, there exists need to encourage provision of name centered information during reporting. Nonetheless, it has been argued that this has the capacity to increase the risk of discrimination and therefore should be prevented. This position is also kept by the Centers of Disease Control and Avoidance that ensure that assessment of HIV is manufactured anonymous.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Another situation that breeches confidentiality but is not punishable by law is when the health care providers disclose the position of an individual to persons that may be at risk of illness. In this regard, Gostin and Webber (1998) ascertain that the right of a patient to be accorded confidentiality is often incompatible with the right of the partner to be notified consequently. Despite the fact that confidentiality is instrumental to avoid discrimination, it needs to be liked that the implications of failing woefully to notify a non suspecting spouse can be far reaching. To avoid conflicts, the patients are usually suggested during counseling to reveal their status to their sex associates.

Another exception with regard to confidentiality of information that is HIV related concerns the medical employees that are attacked with the disease. This particularly affects the personnel who perform vulnerability prone strategies. In this respect, Performer et al (2006) cites the US law that demands that the position of these staff be evaluated by the expert -panel. This then makes a decision regarding whether to prevent the infected workers from carrying out such procedures or to inform the patients about their contamination. The equivalency insurance policy that requirements that the healthcare workers disclose their position has been significantly adopted by various claims.

From an moral point of view, disclosure of HIV status by the health staff and enforcement of some type of restrictions is based on the best interests of the patients. However, various studies of whom Lurie and Wolfe (1999) are symbolized argue that contravenes the personal privacy of health workers and improves discrimination specially when the patients are informed. However, it should be appreciated that the advantage of the uninfected patient outweighs the chance of discrimination of the heath worker by the same. To address these concerns, a far more viable methodology would be for the council of experts to place limitations but avoid informing the patient, unless under special conditions.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Another ethical concern regarding HIV positive patients and those with infectious diseases is prepared consent before testing. Basically, various clinical tests that involve trials of the bloodstream samples of the patients do not require consent. However, the realization that screening for HIV possessed various negative implications resulted in the need for informed consent. The precise psychosocial risks that are offered by HIV tests include restriction of insufficient usage of insurance, health care or housing, possibility of rejection by family, friends and/ or close family and discrimination during career. Thus special strategies that seek the consent of the patient such as pretest counselling and dependence on specific up to date consent from the patient are a prerequisite. These steps ensure that the individual is psychologically and emotionally prepared to deal with the implications of the results.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Essentially, the information that needs to be availed to the individual prior to testing include the benefits and hazards of testing, dangerous behaviors, measures carried out to prevent transmitting, the nature of the test and confidentiality of the test. These are always in conjunction with an informed consent from the individual. In their review, Varmus and Satcher (1999) signify that most claims require that the patient provide a written consent. However this provision has various exceptions. In some instances, prisoners are individuals that are accused of erotic crimes are often analyzed without consent. In addition, some state governments have made the evaluation essential for new created babies. In his review, Kass et al (1996) implies that also unveils the position of the mother.

Notably, prenatal trials is also carried out without consent from the mother. Fundamentally, early diagnosis is instrumental in preventing mother to child transmission. Initially, prenatal testing was undertaken following a pretest counselling and knowledgeable consent. However, changes were suggested and currently, all pregnant moms undergo a usual prenatal HIV testing. However, the modified edition of the law by the united states People Health Service shown a dependence on informed consent, though it is not clarify whether this needs to be verbal or written. Connor et al (2004) ascertains that the proposals that seek to make HIV assessment necessary for pregnant mothers are compounded by different complexities.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

To commence with, the provision will not ascertain whether it might be accepted by all the mothers or not. In this respect, it should be loved that some moms may well not be willing to undergo the test. It was posited that once this provision is made a routine need, it could become difficult for the pregnant mothers to determine whether they have the right to decrease the test or not. Notably, this undermines the concepts of autonomy as this critical decision would be beyond the ability of the afflicted mothers. Further, Sargent (2000) implies that the treatment provides will probably neglect that HIV trials has various subconscious implications that will probably bargain the wellbeing of the moms. In this esteem it is strongly recommended that precautionary precautionary measures be undertaken prior to trials.

Further, foregoing the pretest techniques can undermine preventive attempts. Connor et al (2004) implies that in this regard, the mothers wouldn’t normally be up to date about these important procedures plus they would neglect to take necessary options to avoid themselves from contracting new microbe infections. Generally, it is agued that the suggested routine evaluation may bargain the adherence to essential pretest steps. The possible spill over results to all of those other people can adversely have an impact on the wellbeing of the general population.

Further, Levine (1998) points out that pregnant mothers who are HIV positive are usually expected to make various selections regarding their health and pregnancy. In this regard, these women should not be required to either undergo sterilization or abortion. Furthermore, the pregnant mothers should be counseled consequently to be able to enable them make viable decisions to either continue taking the pregnancy or terminate it.

Another ethical concern regarding HIV positive patients includes end of life issues. In this regard, Ferriman (2001) appreciates that prior to the development of antiretroviral therapy, HIV usually progressed rapidly to a terminal disease. However, this matter has in the recent past been less dominant due to the option of antiretroviral therapy. However, it should be acknowledged that some sections of the global people lack vital resources to appeal to these concerns. In such incidences, palliative good care that seeks to lessen suffering is essential. In situations where resources aren’t available, attention is fundamentally limited to emotional support that fundamentally helps the patients arrange for issues such as infant custody and burial. Nevertheless, Lurie and Wolfe (1999) show that this circumstance is most likely changing as methods are being undertaken to increase the provision of anti retroviral drugs to the damaged population. Practical procedures in this respect include pressuring the relevant pharmaceutical companies to provide the drugs at affordable prices, providing resources for sale of the drugs and allowing development of general drugs.

Further, it is argued that the HIV vaccine research in addition has been fraught with numerous ethical complications. To get started with, Wolf and Berkeley (2000) indicate that the minority of the population has ever more been employed in research. In this esteem, it is posited that population samples for studies are often picked from expanding countries. Furthermore, Wolf (2001) notes that the population involved with research often has positive expectation because of the belief that it’s actually a remedy. As such, individuals tend to involve themselves in dangerous behaviors. This implies that the type and function of the trial is seldom communicated to them in a powerful manner. Furthermore, it demonstrates the research workers place more emphasis on the results of the study as opposed to the safety of the individuals. In this respect, it might be important for the experts to safeguard their members too. This will not only enable those to get high quality research but also save the lives of the prone population.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

The HIV vaccine tests are also identified to create various dangers to the participants. In this respect, it is indicated that the individuals tend to be refrained from taking part in future researches. In addition, the implications of the studies to the immunity of the individuals are still unfamiliar. Further, Levine (1998) asserts that the participants may be frustrated over time due to the fact that the vaccine may well not succeed. Also, it is argued that the individuals often react in a different way to specific antibody assessments that characterize the trial. As a result, they might be prevented from planing a trip to other countries. In addition, these effects are likely to undermine their eligibility for some government jobs like the military. This may happen regardless of the actual fact that their seroconversion might not be a representation of an infection.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Furthermore, the members will probably face some type of stigmatization therefore of disclosure to friends and family members. Within their review, Gostin and Webber (1998) ascertain that one stages of the trial often identify a few of the participants to truly have a risky of contracting chlamydia. It has various implications and may pose difficulties to the particular person. Finally, constant research indicates that confidentiality of the position of the individuals has increasingly been breached before. Recent studies affirm that often happens, regardless of the actual fact that the analysts are recharged with the duty of keeping the position of the participants confidential.

Further, moral issues have more and more been raised with regard to performing research about infectious diseases and HIV. To commence with Ferriman (2001) reveals that the members have to be informed before the research and their consent sought. Often, the objectives of the individuals have a tendency to undermine the grade of the study. In this regard it is worth acknowledging that the majority of the participants consent to take part in research, not as a result of need to help the researcher to obtain essential results but of the prospects to achieve personal benefits. The common misconceptions about the value of the research often make some patients to misinterpret the info availed to them. Over time, the quality of the study is greatly undermined.

Health good care providers have been cited by Gostin (2000) to add significantly to these misconceptions. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the health personnel starting a certain research often have an upper palm in regards to to the data about the research. In some instances, they neglect to inform the patients about the value of the study. In other cases, they provide wrong advice to the members and since they have the power on the patients, the participating patients tend to follow their misguided advice.

Further, Kass (19996) argues that some patients participate in researches because of the need to please the medical staff. In many cases, the participants think that they would get quality health care in return. Furthermore, emergent research indicates that the trust that the patients have in the medical institutions often makes them participate in the researches without researching the relevant conditions. In such cases, the professional medical providers undertaking the research over estimation the advantages of the same and fail to inform the participants of relevant steps.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

Conflict of hobbies in the region of research and especially that regarding infectious diseases also raise various ethical things to consider. In this respect, Angell (1998) indicates these are attributable to the huge benefits that healthcare analysts get from excellent results of these research. In particular, they often get grants, prestige and special offers fro their research and other shared work. Because of this, they always aim at recruiting and keeping particular participants in their studies. In some instances, this interest issues with the essential hobbies of the individuals. However, the conflicts that are fiscally oriented often influence the quality of the studies as the decisions made are not objective. In addition, financial conflicts some situations make the research workers to halt your research irrespective of simple fact that it is likely to gain lots of individuals.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.


To summarize, it is clear that the honest principles of esteem for folks, justice and beneficence provide essential guidance in health care. In addition, the utilitarian point of view and the ethic of caring also provide essential assistance to medical patterns. Notably, these allow the clinicians to interact with HIV positive patients and those with infectious diseases in a ecological manner. Honest concerns such as confidentiality, end of life, up to date consent, vaccine research, research design and turmoil of interest characterize the connection between patients with infectious diseases such as HIV and clinicians


From the evaluation, it is for certain that honest issues regarding infectious diseases like HIV and Supports are large and varied. To be able to uphold the relevant moral key points that govern the discussion of patients and clinicians in this regard, it is vital to devote to awareness various factors. These would ensure that the entire wellbeing of the patients and the clinicians is achieved.

To start with, it’s important for the psychologists and other clinicians to see the patients of these rights before assuming any form of treatment or assessments. Understanding of their protection under the law would permit the patients to make objective decisions regarding their position. Particular regions of matter in his respect is always to inform the patients about various exceptions to confidentiality. This might ensure that the patients make up to date decisions and in a timely manner. Wolf (2000) proposes that before informing the individuals vulnerable about the position of the patient, psychologists need to see the patients about their intentions. This might be instrumental in avoiding conflicts at a family group level.

Furthermore, the importance of pretest strategies and especially guidance shouldn’t be understated. Essentially, these seek to psychologically prepare the patients to cope with the implications of testing with ease. Particularly, the importance of positive living must be emphasized. This techniques must be lengthened to prenatal screening. Pregnant mothers have a right to make their decisions and really should be allowed to achieve this through guidance. Much as it’s important to protect the life span of the unborn, it will probably be worth noting that boring screening that deprives the mother of relevant pretest counseling.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.

With regard to HIV vaccine research, it is important that the studies be carried out on a populace that is internationally representative. The participants should be well informed about the implications of the studies and their consent sought before the onset of the same. Relevant information should be all inclusive and really should entail the emotional, psychological, public and legal implications of the trials. Most importantly, the researchers need to uphold a higher degree of confidentiality about the position of the patients.

Finally, it would be important for the researchers undertaking medical research about infectious diseases to be guided by fundamental specialized medical ethics. Of great reference in this esteem would be their potential to place the interests of the patients before their own. In this regard, they need to inform the participants about the strategies of the research and ensure that they get their consent before beginning the research. In addition, they have to uphold a higher level of objectivity when undertaking the research.Ethical Issues with HIV Positive Clients Essay.