Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay

Epidemiologic surveillance is used in public and global health. For this Assignment, begin by locating a recent article about an outbreak of an infectious or communicable disease. The article can come from a newspaper or other source but your paper must be supported with at least three scholarly sources of evidence in the literature which may include your text or course readings. Write a 3- to 4-page paper that includes the following: A summary of the article, including the title and author Identify the title of the article with in-text citation and corresponding reference in reference list The relationship among causal agents, susceptible persons, and environmental factors (epidemiological triangle) The role of the nurse in addressing the outbreak Possible health promotion/health protection strategies that could have been implemented by nurses to mitigate the outbreak It has to be wrote in APA 7th edition. Current article and any other sources 5 years or less. I have attached the writing template and rubric.

Global health is defined as health problems that impact the wider world. It involves health challenges and problems that go beyond national limits (Holtz, 2017). The earth is increasingly facing a rising serious threat to public health. As humans, we can meet pathogens that are likely to cause contagious diseases, as our environment is continually transforming (Holtz, 2017). For a long time, the world has undergone multiple outbreaks due to infectious diseases such as HIV / AIDS, Ebola, tuberculosis, cholera, and Zika virus. This paper seeks to delve into one of the most serious health problems in the world, the Zika virus outbreak of 2016. The paper will also explore the Zika virus epidemiology triangle, the role of nurses in managing the epidemic, and health promotion measures to address the epidemic. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.


Summary of the Article

The article “The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspective, mechanisms, and impact” was written by Philippe et al. and was published in 2016. This article provides important research on the Zika outbreak. The article’s authors point out that the Zika virus has developed to be among the most deadly infections and a significant challenge to global health safety. This applies to pregnant women since the virus adversely affects them. Zika virus could be seen as a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has lately erupted in Central, Pacific, and South America, leading to more microcephaly among other nervous system disorders in newborns.

In addition, this article indicates that current research has proven that there is a causal association between the Zika virus and the subsequent microcephaly in the duration of a woman’s pregnancy. The authors also assert that the spread of the Zika virus is a worldwide issue, especially because more than 2 billion people reside in areas that are vulnerable to infections. According to the article, over 4 billion people were infected with the Zika virus in 2016. That being the case, considering the present magnitude of the outbreak, the virus has a significant level of severity and often has a possible impact that may be long-standing during the maternity cycle. This shows that the effect of the virus on susceptible populations can be catastrophic.

Epidemiological Triangle

The virus has been connected to Guillain-Barre syndrome, brain ischemia, and meningoencephalitis in the populations affected by Zika. Pregnancy is the ideal opportunity for the Zika virus to develop severe microcephaly which can result in miscarriage, stillbirths, and defects in the formation of parts of the fetus’ body. Several studies have attempted to assess how viruses can be spread to the fetus and potentially cause serious health problems (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2016).Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.  Regardless of the attempts made, there remain a variety of concerns about the rate of spread of the virus in expectant women.

Vertical transmission influences the transmission of the virus from one individual to the next. Boeuf et al (2016) affirm that notwithstanding the presence of risks of vertical spread throughout the pregnancy period, fetal spread arising during the second and first trimesters, the likelihood of the newborn having microcephaly is 13% higher. Conversely, according to Hamel et al. (2013), the main means by which human beings acquire the Zika virus is by getting bitten by an infected Aedes. Aedes Aegypti is popular in and around tropical areas. While Albopictus is also widespread, it is usually located in comparatively more temperate zones. It is worth noting that bites by Aedes mosquito are mainly accountable for the chikungunya virus. Sexual intercourse with an infected individual is another means that the virus can be spread to humans. As a result, an unborn child can acquire the virus through fetal transmission during pregnancy. Transmission can also occur through other means such as laboratory contact and transfusion of infected blood. Moreover, research has demonstrated that the Zika virus is found in saliva, as well as female genital tract fluids.

Role of the Nurse in addressing the outbreak

Once the Zika virus has been transmitted, it takes between two and fourteen days for the incubation to occur and the clinical manifestations to appear. Some symptoms associate with the virus comprises non-purulent conjunctivitis, retroorbital discomfort, low-grade fever, myalgia, headache, and arthralgia. This suggests that medical professionals should be able to identify symptoms of Zika virus infection in individuals. Analyzing the symptoms patients and matching them to the geographic place of the areas individuals travel from assists in providing useful knowledge about susceptibility to the virus.

Nurse practitioners can manage the virus by encouraging patients to consume more liquids and rest adequately. Therefore, they should continue to promote consciousness and educate the public about virus prevention strategies. Pregnant women as well as those hoping to get pregnant must stop going to places that are perceived as danger zones by the CDC. They must also demonstrate compliance with the EPA approved insect repellent and take the appropriate measures to ensure that they are safe from any mosquito bites. Furthermore, Nurse practitioners ought to educate them on the appropriate contraception methods that would reduce their likelihood of becoming pregnant. Lastly, they should be informed on concerns relating to blood transfusion, steps that have to be followed when handling this matter. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.

Possible Mitigation Strategies

Nurses are responsible for ensuring effective monitoring to mitigate the epidemic. Regular assessment of possible susceptibility to the Zika virus needs to be conducted as one of the effective mitigation measures alongside nurse monitoring. Continuous surveillance guarantees that everything is normal and that, in the event of any indications, the action is taken as quickly and efficiently as possible. Examination of fetal tissue is also essential as this guarantees that women with stillbirths as well as other associated issues are provided with efficient care (HealthyPeople, 2016).


Conclusively, nurses play a crucial role in regards to the prevention and management of the Zika virus, especially in expectant mothers. Therefore, this article is important in dealing with this matter, since it demonstrates the essential knowledge that has to be provided in every clinical setting to overcome this problem. Nurses can take an extra step to provide guidance and educate patients about the current events of the epidemic.


Boeuf, P., Drummer, H. E., Richards, J. S., Scoullar, M. J., & Beeson, J. G. (2016). The global threat of the Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact. BMC medicine, 14(1), 112.

Hamel, R., Liégeois, F., Wichit, S., Pompon, J., Diop, F., Talignani, L., & Missé, D. (2016). Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions. Microbes and Infection.

HealthyPeople.gov. (2016). Global health. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/global-health

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.

Title of the Paper in Full

When you download a Walden template, the first action is to save it locally to your computer using the Save As command. You will want to make sure that you are moving the document to a new location on your computer when you Save As. Documents should not be maintained in the Download folder. When you are ready to use the template for a paper, you will open the template, and immediately Save As giving the document a new name. Once you have renamed the document, you can safely use the Save command for saving the document as you write.

APA format and college-level writing can be difficult for many students returning to school after several years away from academia. An abstract is typically not required for the short papers that undergraduates write, so an abstract page is not included in this template but can be added if needed (you can find a version with the abstract on our General Templates page). The references page shows some sample references for sources such as webpages, books, journal articles, and course videos. Below follows some advice for writing your paper and adhering to APA standards.

Your introductory paragraph and every paragraph that follows should have a minimum of three sentences, with an average of four to five and no more than seven sentences. The last sentence of your opening paragraph should be the thesis statement, which summarizes the purpose of the assignment and how you intend to address it. The sentences preceding your thesis statement should simply provide background that contextualizes your thesis for readers.

Each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence, which summarizes the paragraph’s main argument or idea. Also, the last sentence (or lead-out) of each paragraph should be a transition statement that connects what you discussed in that paragraph and what is to come in the next one. In the middle of each paragraph, you should cover something with your own thoughts, and in a separate sentence, provide a sentence paraphrased from a source with an in-text citation at the end. The source may back up your opinion, or give an alternative viewpoint, or even simply provide some background. See the Writing Center’s webpage on paragraphs for further advice.

Try to use paraphrases instead of direct quotations when possible, only quoting when the meaning of the idea or excerpt would be lost if you paraphrase it. All information from sources, whether paraphrased or quoted, need to be cited. Citations should be in parenthetical or narrative citation format and include the last name(s) of the author(s) or name of the organization that published the material, year of publication, and a page or paragraph number for quoted material. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.  Each source cited in your paper, unless it is a personal communication, should include a corresponding reference list entry. If no date is given for a source, write “n.d.” in place of the year (it stands for “no date”). This sentence does not come from a source, but I will end it with an in-text citation so you can see an example (Author, n.d.). If you have more than two sentences of information from one source, ensure that it is clear to the reader where the information in each sentence is from, using citations or other cue phrases (e.g. The authors also stated…). For more information and examples, see APA 7, Section 8.

Many websites that information comes from are suspect in terms of factual and unbiased information. In a nutshell, avoid using Wikipedia, About.com, Answers.com, or similar websites, as the Writing Center explains in the “Why You Shouldn’t Wiki” blog post. Though some .com sites are acceptable, most undergraduates have trouble identifying whether they can be trusted, so an easy guideline to follow is to avoid them. Websites ending in .gov, .net, .edu, .org, and so forth are typically more trustworthy than a .com source. See the Library’s Evaluating Resources webpage for more tips on finding reliable sources.

The body of your paper should have a couple of paragraphs or more. Your conclusion paragraph should briefly summarize the main points of your paper and place the paper in the context of social change. While your conclusion should not introduce new topics, you may suggest a direction for future research. Generally, you should not write anything in the conclusion that would require you to cite a source; instead, the conclusion should represent only your own thoughts and analysis.


Make sure you follow directions, and we recommend you download the grading rubric from Doc Sharing that breaks down how an assignment is graded. A one-page essay means a full one page of writing and does not include elements such as references, tables or figures, or the title page. The requirement of using two sources in your assignment directions does not mean simply providing two in-text citations for the same source; the sources themselves must be different. Lastly, if you have any questions about writing a paper or properly citing sources, feel free to contact the Writing Center at writingsupport@waldenu.edu or through our Live Chat Hours. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.


(Note that the following references are intended as examples only. These entries illustrate different types of references but are not cited in the text of this template. In your paper, be sure every reference entry matches a citation, and every citation refers to an item in the reference list.)

American Counseling Association. (n.d.). About us. https://www.counseling.org/about-us/about-aca

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

Bach, D., & Blake, D. J. (2016). Frame or get framed: The critical role of issue framing in nonmarket management. California Management Review, 58(3), 66-87. https://doi.org/10.1525/cmr.2016.58.3.66

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of Power. Routledge.​

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225–229. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A new history. HarperCollins. https://doi.org/10.1037.0000136-000​

Lindley, L. C., & Slayter, E. M. (2018). Prior trauma exposure and serious illness at end of life: A national study of children in the U.S. foster care system from 2005 to 2015. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 56(3), 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.06.001

Osman, M. A. (2016, December 15). 5 do’s and don’ts for staying motivated. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/5-dos-and-donts-for-staying-motivated/art-20270835

Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Wiley. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.

Walden University Library. (n.d.). Anatomy of a research article [Video]. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/instructionalmedia/tutorials#s-lg-box-7955524

Walden University Writing Center. (n.d.). Writing literature reviews in your graduate coursework [Webinar]. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/webinars/graduate#s-lg-box-18447417

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/. Epidemiology in Public and Global Health Essay.