Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
Using the concepts from this week you will develop a 2-3-page (not including title and reference page) APA style paper using the following criteria:Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
CHOSEN TOPIC ON HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020:
Dementia’s, Including Alzheimer\’s Disease
Increase the proportion of adults aged 65 years and older with diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia’s, or their caregiver, who are aware of the diagnosis
A title page in APA format including a running head, name, date and institution.
An introductory paragraph that includes a thesis statement and closing paragraph that summarizes your paper.
Analyze the genetic implications for your Healthy People 2020 objective.
Relate how at least two environmental factors can impact your chosen topic based upon evidence-based research. Be sure to cite your source(s).
Explain a minimum of two protective factors associated with your chosen topic.
Explain a minimum of two risk factors associated with your chosen topic.
A reference page formatted in APA.
Introduction and Closing
Description of Genetic Effects and Interaction
Describe the genetic implications for the Healthy People 2020 objective.Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
Description of Genetic Predisposition and Environmental Exposures.
Describe how at least two environmental factors can impact the chosen topic.
Identification of Protective and Risk Factors
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disorder of public health significance since it increases the life expectancy of the general population and has significant socioeconomic consequences. It is primarily characterized by progressive disorientation, memory loss, and pathological markers such as neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Previously, AD was assumed as a rare condition. However, over the years, it has been recognized as an inevitable aging consequence. It is for this reason that Healthy People 2020 acknowledges AD and other forms of dementia as a major public health concern and strives to address it through its Healthy People 2020 objectives. For this Assignment, the author focuses on the DIA-1 healthy objective. This objective aims at “increasing the proportion of adults aged 65 years and older with diagnosed AD and other forms of dementia, or their caregiver, who are aware of the diagnosis” (Health.gov, n.d.). Although there is no cure for AD, early diagnosis, appropriate supportive care, and prompt interventions that address caregiving needs can help to improve outcomes, the quality of life, and overall well-being of individuals with AD and other forms of dementia.
Genetics and AD
The classes of genes that increase the risk of developing AD are three namely APOE-e4, APOE-e2, and APOE-e3. However, the gene with the highest risk is APOE-e4. Currently, existing evidence approximates that between 40-65% of individuals diagnosed with AD have the APOE-e4 gene. Although everyone inherits a copy of some form of APOE from every parent, those who inherit a single copy of APOE-e4 from a father or mother k ae at a higher risk of developing AD (Hickman, Faustin & Wisniewski, 2016). The risk is even higher for individuals who inherit two copies of both genes from both parents. This knowledge can be implemented in the DIA-1 Healthy People objective to ensure early genetic predictive and diagnostic screening for high-risk genes and potential causal mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 that result in AD.Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
Genetic Predisposition and Environmental Exposures
There are current reports on the genetic-environment interactions that increase the risk of AD. For instance, prolonged exposure of individuals with the APOE4 allele to toxic metals through dermal absorption, contaminated air, or oral ingestion of contaminated food or water influences degenerative disease. A perfect example is an interaction between the APOE4 genotype and an individual with prolonged lead, which influences amyloid-β proteins to aggregate on neuronal cells with subsequent AD-like pathological symptoms (Yegambaram et al, 2015). Similarly, chronic stress has also been implicated in increasing the risk of AD as evidenced by high levels of cortisol in plasma that influence cognitive deterioration and rapid progression of the disease.
Protective and Risk Factors
Generally, anti-inflammatory environmental influences are protective and beneficial in decreasing the likelihood of developing AD. The most significant are low-calorie diets since they decrease the production of free radicals, increase BDNF concentrations, and brain neurogenesis. Additional protective factors are having a high educational achievement and cognitive stimulation which collectively, improve cognitive reserve (Hickman, Faustin & Wisniewski, 2016). The major risk factors associated with AD are hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension can deprive the brain of adequate blood supply resulting in a stroke. Stroke correlates directly with dementia and he likelihood of developing AD among elderly individuals (Edwards et al, 2019). This happens when stroke promotes the production and clearance or Aβ or aggravates the loss of neurons at the synapses. Cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation influence a decrease in cerebral perfusion with subsequent damage to the nerve cell, cognitive decline, and brain dysfunction. Environmental Influences on Gene Expression
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of public health significance since it increases the life expectancy of the general population and has significant socioeconomic consequences. Healthy People objective DIA-1 strives to increase the population of individuals aged 65 years and older with AD and other dementia forms. The classes of genes that increase the risk of developing AD are three namely APOE-e4, APOE-e2, and APOE-e3 but the gene with the highest risk is APOE-e4. The genetic-environmental interaction between individuals with the APOE4 allele to toxic metals or chronic stress increases the risk of AD. The protective factors of AD are high educational achievement, low-calorie diets, and cognitive stimulation while the risk factors of AD are hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Edwards Iii, G. A., Gamez, N., Escobedo, G., Jr, Calderon, O., & Moreno-Gonzalez, I. (2019). Modifiable Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 11, 146. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2019.00146
Health.gov (n.d.). Dementia, Including Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved 15th January 2021 from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/dementias-including-alzheimers-disease/objectives
Hickman, R. A., Faustin, A., & Wisniewski, T. (2016). Alzheimer Disease and Its Growing Epidemic: Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and the Urgent Need for Therapeutics. Neurologic clinics, 34(4), 941–953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2016.06.009
Yegambaram, M., Manivannan, B., Beach, T. G., & Halden, R. U. (2015). Role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease: a review. Current Alzheimer Research, 12(2), 116–146. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205012666150204121719
Environmental Influences on Gene Expression