Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Translation of a research-based intervention to practice involves a critical review of numerous published research studies to discern if individuals – research subjects – were treated according to the ethical values and principles as defined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Reflect upon your selected practice problem and the eventual research-based intervention you select for your practice change project and address the following. (OBESITY) Environmental Health Sciences Essay


1-What are the potential benefits and harms related to your selected practice problem when considering a research-based intervention for your practice change project?

2-Are there competing personal or professional values related to this research-based intervention that might impact the implementation of this intervention in your practice setting? Environmental Health Sciences Essay

3-What types of objections might be raised? How will you explain your decision to key stakeholders to address these objections?

Please answer these questions separated and use at least 3 sources no later than 5 years.

You can use this sources:

Resnik, D. B. (2015, May). Glossary of commonly used terms in research ethics. Retrieved from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/glossary/index.cfm

· Resnik, D. B. (2018, July). Research ethics timeline (1932–Present). Retrieved from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/timeline/index.cfm (Links to an external site.) Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Since his appointment in 1991 as the director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP), Dr. Kenneth Olden has worked steadfastly to develop the field of environmental health. As a result of his efforts during an almost 14-year tenure, the field of environmental health has matured and expanded to become one of the most comprehensive and humanly relevant disciplines in science. Because of Olden’s vision, we no longer concern ourselves only with the toxicity of physical agents–we now explore the effects of lifestyle, social and economic factors, and the built environment on human health. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Dr. Olden’s policies emphasized the need to bring all interested parties–government, industry, academia, and the lay public–into discourse on complex and often controversial environmental health issues. For this reason, Olden created innovative research and risk assessment centers within the NIEHS and the NTP comprised of representatives from all the above-mentioned sectors. Examples of the centers include the Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods and the Toxicogenomics Research Consortium. He also expanded the network of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Sciences Centers that emphasize multidisciplinary research collaboration and coordination. To ensure community involvement, he made it mandatory for each NIEHS-funded center to have a Community Outreach and Education Program that was responsive to local environmental health problems, particularly those of poor and minority populations. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Olden worked particularly hard to bring the lay public into the often intimidating and exclusive scientific process so that “regular citizens” could have a voice in important public health decisions. He established the NIEHS Public Interest Liaison Group, which allowed members of advocacy groups who previously had little access to decision makers to provide input on research directions and translation to disease prevention and treatment. In the late 1990s, Olden instituted a series of town meetings throughout the United States so that he could hear firsthand environmental concerns from the public.

Many scientific advances have been achieved during Olden’s tenure. But, as a true humanitarian, his greater goal was to ensure that these advances were rapidly translated into real improvements in human health through both clinical practice and public health policy. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

This dissertation examines the linkages between public policy, environment and human health. The first chapter evaluates the environmental impact of the world’s largest Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in London. The second chapter reviews recent literature in assessing the health effects of air pollution, and at the same time, provides a national scale estimation on the impacts of four “criteria air pollutants” on fetal health using natality data in the United States from 1991 to 2008. The third chapter explores fetal sensitivity to different air pollution thresholds and analyzes the heterogeneous effects of air pollution across socioeconomic groups. Chapter one concerns the environmental impact of the world’s largest LEZ introduced in London in early 2008. The LEZ policy restricts heavily polluting diesel vehicles from entering Greater London by charging 100 to 200 euros per day. The empirical estimation relies on a difference-in-differences (DID) method that compares the air pollution concentrations before and after the introduction of the LEZ. Using daily level particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data, I find that the initial phase of London’s LEZ does not lead to substantially reduced air pollution inside London. The subsequent phases, on the other hand, generate an 8 to 13 percent reduction of air pollution. A further spatial analysis shows that a majority of this air pollution reduction occurs in industrial instead of roadside areas. Combining data from traffic sectors, I provide evidence that the insignificant DID estimator in the initial phase is partially caused by the positive spillover effects nearby and far from Greater London. I supplement this result with evidence showing that drivers may substitute toward a non-subject vehicle to avoid paying the LEZ fee inside the zone. Chapter two provides a thorough literature review on the health impact of direct and indirect exposures to air pollution. The reviewed articles span the fields of epidemiology, environmental health, medical science and economics. For each reviewed article, I discuss in detail the identification strategies, which include quasi- ce-in-differences method. The estimation results, however, show some degree of inconsistency. Motivated by the literature gap, the rest of Chapter 2 performs a comprehensive analysis on the health effect of maternal exposure to air pollution using data from over 20 million births in the United States from 1991 to 2008. Environmental Health Sciences Essay For the four “criteria air pollutants” studied, carbon monoxide imposes the greatest health risk on fetuses during the first and third trimesters. Nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide each shows some adverse effects on birth outcome, but their impacts are weaker than those of carbon monoxide. In addition, I find that maternal avoidance behaviors against air pollution may largely reduce the health risks of air pollution, especially for pre-term babies during the second trimester. Chapter three constructs an innovative pollution index to empirically investigate whether there exists a “safety threshold” of air pollution. The econometric model is constructed based on the traditional approach but has an important revision on the key regressor. Specifically, a series of hypothetical “safety thresholds” are tested against the assumption that only pollution ranging above the threshold will convey explanatory power on health outcomes. The model is estimated using individual-level birth data in the U.S. from 1991 to 2008. Among the four pollutants analyzed, carbon monoxide imposes significant health risks even if its concentration approaches zero, whereas nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide do not affect fetal health conditions unless their concentrations rise above certain thresholds. According to my estimation, the thresholds that generate the most sensitive changes of fetal birth weight are about 15.30 ppb for nitrogen dioxide, 0.029 ppm for ozone and 13.4 ppb for sulfur dioxide, all at the weekly average level. Meanwhile, the analysis also implies the existence of heterogeneity in the responsiveness to air pollution across different socioeconomic groups. In particular, smoking mothers giving subsequent births are found to be at high risk of environmental hazards. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

A polluted environment means an unstable and unhealthy society. The effects of pollution are so many, as they range widely. It would be hard to have a healthy society in an area where there is pollution. Pollution causes damage to human and animals, plants, as well as the entire environment(Plattenberg, 2007). Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Globally, the types of pollution that are common are air, water, and soil pollution. According to several researches done, it is evident that the impact of pollution may range from a minor discomfort to complex diseases. The people who suffer from mild discomfort because of pollution may tend to ignore the issue. The seriousness of pollution impacts is realized when complex diseases arise such as cancer or physical deformities.

Whether minor or complex effect of pollution, all leads to unhealthy living. Air polluted area would probably result to unhealthy people suffering from lung inefficiency, respiratory problems, asthma attacks, and infected physical body organs. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

Water pollution would result to serious complications such as typhoid, Amoebiasis, Ascariasis etc. Soil pollution results to worse effects to human beings such as leukemia, brain damage to young children, kidney damage, and fatigue(Rana, 2006). Nevertheless, it would be hard to maintain health in a polluted environment.


Policies of addressing healthy environment
Maintaining environment health is a highly crucial aspect in the society. Citizens find it hard to avoid pollution, but there are measures that can be put, to ensure minimized environmental pollution. Any form of pollution, leading to serious diseases like cancer and body organs failure should be avoided totally. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

In efforts of trying to handle the issue of environment pollution, there are vital steps that would be considered first. Close observation of any chemical released to the environment without any control would be crucial. All the offensive trades that might be taking place within cities should be inspected to ensure that they are licensed, and their disposal guaranteed.

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Any application of intended development that is likely to cause environment pollution should be assessed closely(Malabika, 2009). It would also be the responsibility of citizens to present complains of any form of pollution, which they may experience. Any form of pollution that may cause harm to human and animals should never be given a chance. Environmental Health Sciences Essay

In conclusion, it is evident that I have proved beyond any reasonable doubt that, a polluted environment cannot sustain the people’s healthy status. Although Larry used to take water direct from the creek, and did not suffer from a serious illness that would be defined as luck.

However, although Larry did not witness serious complications, biologically he caused himself some internal bodily harm. For people to be secured in the society, pollution should be minimized starting from homes, businesses, institutions, industries, and even recreational areas(Malabika, 2009).

If some organizations control pollution and others refuse to do the same, it would be hard for the society to live in a healthy manner. No matter how minor a certain pollution may seem to be, any form of pollution should be avoided. The minor pollutions, which are avoided leads to some serious effects to human and animals(Malabika, 2009). Environmental Health Sciences Essay

I thank Larry for sharing with me his interesting views concerning the water pollution. I am sure now Larry is convinced that a polluted environment leads to unhealthy society. Never again should he ignore to treat drinking water for the sake of his healthy.Environmental Health Sciences Essay