Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Topic 3: Healthy People 2020 set a goal that 80% of the people in the U.S. have an optimal amount of fluoridated water available in their community’s water. Today, about 72% of Americans have access to optimally fluoridated water. Do you know if your community water supply is fluoridated? To find the answer, check with your local water department. Is the water naturally rich in fluoride, or is this mineral added to the water supply? What amount of fluoride is in the drinking water? If it is added to the water supply, how long has this procedure been in operation? If the water does not provide fluoride, how can you obtain sufficient fluoride? Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
must be at least 250 words and two references
Every doctor is familiar with the patient who
presents complaining of a lack of energy,
tiredness and exhaustion, and for whom
thorough examination and even routine
laboratory tests do not provide a satisfactory
explanation for their symptoms. Without
any underlying diseases, might these
symptoms be caused by a lack of vitamins
Research in the latter half of the 20th
century has dramatically increased our
understanding of the biochemical processes
of cellular energy generation and
demonstrated the fundamental role of a
large number of vitamins and minerals as
coenzymes and cofactors in these processes.
This paper is based on the recognition that a
lack of micronutrients may impair cellular
energy production, resulting in symptoms of
tiredness and lack of energy. In the first part
of the paper, we summarize the current
understanding of the role of micronutrients
in energy generation and discuss the
implications of micronutrient deficiency for
energy and well-being. In the second part of
the paper, we discuss the potential role of
micronutrient supplements in improving the
well-being of patients complaining of lack of
energy and whether doctors should
recommend such supplements. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
This review focuses on ‘healthy’ adults
E Huskisson, S Maggini, M Ruf
Vitamins and minerals in fatigue
with active and demanding lives. It refers
only briefly to athletes and sports
performance, because comprehensive
reviews about these groups and their specific
needs can be found easily in the literature.
For the same reason, we will also exclude
very well-known risk groups, such as the
elderly and those with vitamin B12 and iron
Energy metabolism in the
Energy to power the body’s metabolic
processes is derived from the food that we
eat. Various reactions in catabolic pathways
release this energy and store it in the highenergy phosphate bonds of the body’s energy
storage molecule, adenosine triphosphate
(ATP). The process by which energy is
transformed into ATP is known as cellular
respiration (Fig. 1). The main part of this
cellular respiration happens in the
mitochondria, often referred to as the power
plants of the cell. Glucose is the body’s
preferred source of energy for the production
of ATP but, if necessary, other carbohydrates,
fats and proteins can also be metabolized to
acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), enter the citric
acid (Krebs) cycle and be oxidized to carbon
dioxide and water. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
FIGURE 1: A simplified representation of cellular respiration with its four main steps.
From each molecule of glucose, a total of up to 38 molecules of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) are produced. NADH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced
form); FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
E Huskisson, S Maggini, M Ruf
Vitamins and minerals in fatigue
ROLES OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN
The transformation of dietary energy
sources, such as carbohydrates, fats and
proteins into cellular energy in the form of
ATP requires several micronutrients as
coenzymes and cofactors of enzymatic
reactions, as structural components of
enzymes and mitochondrial cytochromes,
and as active electron and proton carriers in
the ATP-generating respiratory chain:1,2
(i) thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP; vitamin
B1), CoA (containing pantothenic acid),
flavin mononucleotide (FMN; derived from
vitamin B2), flavin adenine dinucleotide
(FAD; derived from vitamin B2) and
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD;
derived from nicotinamide) are involved in
the Krebs cycle and complexes I and II of the
respiratory chain; (ii) biotin, CoA and FAD
are involved in haem biosynthesis, which is
an essential part of the cytochromes and
important for the latter part of the
mitochondrial respiratory chain; (iii)
succinyl-CoA can feed into either the
respiratory chain or the Krebs cycle
depending on the needs of the cell.
In addition, the respiratory chain in the
mitochondria also involves iron – sulphur
(Fe – S) centres containing either two or four
iron atoms that form an electron transfer
centre within a protein. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
The role of vitamins in energy metabolism
continues to attract research interest.
Depeint et al.
2 confirmed the essential role of
vitamins B6, B12 and folate in maintaining
the mitochondrial one-carbon transfer cycles
by regulating mitochondrial enzymes. The
same authors also emphasized the essential
role of the B vitamin family in maintaining
mitochondrial energy metabolism and how
mitochondria in their role as the cellular
organelles responsible for energy
metabolism are compromised by a
deficiency of any B vitamin.3
As with the B vitamins, the role of certain
minerals in energy metabolism is the subject
of increasing interest. For example, a recent
review noted the importance of adequate
amounts of magnesium, zinc and chromium
to ensure the capacity for increased energy
expenditure and work performance, and
that supplemental magnesium and zinc
apparently improve strength and muscle
metabolism.4 A subsequent paper
investigated the effects of magnesium
depletion on physical performance and
found that it resulted in increased energy
needs and an adverse effect on
cardiovascular function during submaximal work.5 Most recently, Lukaski has
shown that low dietary zinc also impairs
cardiorespiratory function during exercise.6
Table 1 summarizes the present state of
knowledge with regard to the role(s) of
individual micronutrients in energy
metabolism.7 – 10
Inadequate micronutrient Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
The serious consequences of profound
vitamin deficiency have been recognized for
more than a century. Mainly as a result of
better general nutrition and of micronutrient
supplementation in at-risk groups, the
deficiency diseases, such as rickets, pellagra,
scurvy and beriberi, are now relatively
uncommon, at least in the developed world.
But, within the past two decades, a number
of investigators11,12 have re-introduced the
concept of marginal micronutrient
deficiency, first proposed by Pietrzik in
1985.13 This showed that, long before the
clinical symptoms of deficiency appear,
micronutrient deficiencies develop
progressively through several sub-clinical
stages Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients (which is healthy) and getting too much (which can end up harming you). Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need.
Essential nutrients for your body
Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone. It churns out rich red blood that carries nutrients and oxygen to remote outposts, and it sends nerve signals skipping along thousands of miles of brain and body pathways. It also formulates chemical messengers that shuttle from one organ to another, issuing the instructions that help sustain your life. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
But to do all this, your body requires some raw materials. These include at least 30 vitamins, minerals, and dietary components that your body needs but cannot manufacture on its own in sufficient amounts.
Vitamins and minerals are considered essential nutrients—because acting in concert, they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help shore up bones, heal wounds, and bolster your immune system. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
But trying to keep track of what all these vitamins and minerals do can be confusing. Read enough articles on the topic, and your eyes may swim with the alphabet-soup references to these nutrients, which are known mainly be their initials (such as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K—to name just a few).
In this article, you’ll gain a better understanding of what these vitamins and minerals actually do in the body and why you want to make sure you’re getting enough of them. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Micronutrients with a big role in the body
Vitamins and minerals are often called micronutrients because your body needs only tiny amounts of them. Yet failing to get even those small quantities virtually guarantees disease. Here are a few examples of diseases that can result from vitamin deficiencies:
Scurvy. Old-time sailors learned that living for months without fresh fruits or vegetables—the main sources of vitamin C—causes the bleeding gums and listlessness of scurvy.
Blindness. In some developing countries, people still become blind from vitamin A deficiency.
Rickets. A deficiency in vitamin D can cause rickets, a condition marked by soft, weak bones that can lead to skeletal deformities such as bowed legs. Partly to combat rickets, the U.S. has fortified milk with vitamin D since the 1930s.
Just as a lack of key micronutrients can cause substantial harm to your body, getting sufficient quantities can provide a substantial benefit. Some examples of these benefits: Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Strong bones. A combination of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, and phosphorus protects your bones against fractures.
Prevents birth defects. Taking folic acid supplements early in pregnancy helps prevent brain and spinal birth defects in offspring.
Healthy teeth. The mineral fluoride not only helps bone formation but also keeps dental cavities from starting or worsening.
The difference between vitamins and minerals
Although they are all considered micronutrients, vitamins and minerals differ in basic ways. Vitamins are organic and can be broken down by heat, air, or acid. Minerals are inorganic and hold on to their chemical structure. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
So why does this matter? It means the minerals in soil and water easily find their way into your body through the plants, fish, animals, and fluids you consume. But it’s tougher to shuttle vitamins from food and other sources into your body because cooking, storage, and simple exposure to air can inactivate these more fragile compounds.
Interacting—in good ways and bad
Many micronutrients interact. Vitamin D enables your body to pluck calcium from food sources passing through your digestive tract rather than harvesting it from your bones. Vitamin C helps you absorb iron. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
The interplay of micronutrients isn’t always cooperative, however. For example, vitamin C blocks your body’s ability to assimilate the essential mineral copper. And even a minor overload of the mineral manganese can worsen iron deficiency.
A closer look at water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins are packed into the watery portions of the foods you eat. They are absorbed directly into the bloodstream as food is broken down during digestion or as a supplement dissolves. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Because much of your body consists of water, many of the water-soluble vitamins circulate easily in your body. Your kidneys continuously regulate levels of water-soluble vitamins, shunting excesses out of the body in your urine.
Biotin (vitamin B7)
Folic acid (folate, vitamin B9)
Niacin (vitamin B3)
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Thiamin (vitamin B1)
What they do
Although water-soluble vitamins have many tasks in the body, one of the most important is helping to free the energy found in the food you eat. Others help keep tissues healthy. Here are some examples of how different vitamins help you maintain health: Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Release energy. Several B vitamins are key components of certain coenzymes (molecules that aid enzymes) that help release energy from food.
Produce energy. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin engage in energy production.
Build proteins and cells. Vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid metabolize amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and help cells multiply.
Make collagen. One of many roles played by vitamin C is to help make collagen, which knits together wounds, supports blood vessel walls, and forms a base for teeth and bones. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
Words to the wise
Contrary to popular belief, some water-soluble vitamins can stay in the body for long periods of time. You probably have several years’ supply of vitamin B12 in your liver. And even folic acid and vitamin C stores can last more than a couple of days.
Generally, though, water-soluble vitamins should be replenished every few days.
Just be aware that there is a small risk that consuming large amounts of some of these micronutrients through supplements may be quite harmful. For example, very high doses of B6—many times the recommended amount of 1.3 milligrams (mg) per day for adults—can damage nerves, causing numbness and muscle weakness. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay
A closer look at fat-soluble vitamins
Rather than slipping easily into the bloodstream like most water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins gain entry to the blood via lymph channels in the intestinal wall (see illustration). Many fat-soluble vitamins travel through the body only under escort by proteins that act as carriers. Energy Metabolism And Micronutrients Essay