Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Write a paper (2,000-2,500) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.


Communicable Disease Selection 1.Chickenpox 2. Tuberculosis 3. Influenza 4. Mononucleosis 5. Hepatitis B 6. HIV 7. Ebola 8. Measles 9. Polio 10.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious. Influenza Epidemiology Paper requirements 1. describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so,Provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc. 2. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious. 3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population? 4. Explain the role of the community health nurse ( case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community. 5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organization contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease. 6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious, often acute and fatal illness in human beings. The disease is caused by the Ebola virus which is spread via contact with body fluids or blood of individuals with EVD or a corpse infected with the virus, or infected bush meat or animals (Malvy et al., 2019).   Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.


Ebola virus is the cause of EVD. Ebola virus  RNA virus belonging to the Filoviroidae family and endemic to regions of equatorial and West  Africa.  There are five species of Ebolavirus, namely Zaire Sudan Bundibugyo Cote d’Ivoire and Reston. The spread of Ebola virus mainly occurs when humans come into direct contact with infected persons or corpses or body fluids. The virus causes an acute, severe illness which is fatal if not treated (Malvy et al., 2019).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Symptoms and Complications

EVD has incubation 2 to 21 days. After the incubation period, initial symptoms set in, which include body aches, high fever, fatigue, and malaise.  Gastrointestinal symptoms, entailing abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting typically develop after the initial symptoms. These symptoms can be mild to severe, with the patient losing at least five liters of fluids in a day.  Other rarer signs and symptoms include cough and dysponea, hiccups, conjuctival injection, and localized pain in joints, muscles chest, or abdomen. Even though some people start recovering at this period, others go to shock as a result of hypovolaemia along with a systemic inflammatory response. At this period, individuals can experience hemorrhagic events, entailing mucosal bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, petechiae, conjunctival bleeding, as well as continued oozing following venepuncture (Malvy et al., 2019).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Haemorrhage was a rare symptom in the 2013 to 2016 ebola outbreak in West Africa.  Neurological events are uncommon and include convulsions, delirium, and confusion.  Oral ulcers, throat pain, or dysphasia are additional late symptoms of the disease. Exceptionally, recovering patients can suddenly probably as a result of cardiac arrhythmias (Malvy, et al., 2019).

Modes of transmission

Ebola virus is introduced to humans when an individual l comes into direct contact with organs, body fluids, or organs of infected wild animals, including gorillas, chimpanzees, or fruit bats, or when a person handles meat from an infected animal. Sustenance of the infection in human communities occurs via person to person contact, usually from symptomatic patients to people caring for them in homes as well as health care settings where the infection-control practice is inadequate and there is the unavailability of short supply of personal protective equipment. The key mode of dissemination in human outbreaks is the transmission of the virus from one person to another when a person comes into direct contact with a dead or symptomatic case. Since there are huge viral loads in corpses, burials, and funerals with practices of ceremonial touching and washing of dead individuals usually contribute multiple transmission chains (Okeke, 2019). Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.


There is no therapeutic treatment at the moment for EVD.  There is an indication of Supportive care with a focus on electrolyte and fluid management along with maintenance of circulatory function. According to Malvy et al (2019), adequate correction or prevention of losses of fluids, by providing parenteral or oral fluids is the standard practice for patients with a critical illness. Intravenous fluid is needed when patients are unable to be given fluids orally because they ate too weak or in instances of coma, drowsiness, or ileus.  Administering crystalloid fluids in adequate amounts to attain haemodynamic equilibrium is the suggested standard of care if there is a need for intravenous fluids. Because renal impairment is connected with increased deadly outcomes in EVD,   it is important to address kidney impairment. Renal impairment is manageable through carefully replacing fluids.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Demographic of Interest

The first EVD outbreak occurred in 1976 in Yambuku, Zaire (currently known as DRC). 318 cases were caused by the Zaire strain, with mortality being 88 percent.  Reuse of syringes and without sterilization and disposable needles were widespread during the outbreak. Around this period, another outbreak occurred in Sudan, with the Sudan strain affecting 151 individuals and mortality rate being 53 percent. Health care staff were hugely affected because they failed to use appropriate barrier protection. Since 1976, frank outbreaks and episodic cases have happened mainly in Uganda, Sudan, and DRC. From 2000 to 2001, an Ebola outbreak occurred in Uganda, with three districts being affected.  425 people contracted the disease, with the mortality rate being 53 percent.  Close contact with bodies of victims during funerals along with lack of sufficient personal protective equipment caused the transmission of the Ebola virus (Madariaga, 2015). Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

The biggest outbreak of Ebola occurred in December 2013 in Meliandou, Guinea.   Health care personnel transmitted the disease to neighboring districts. Since then, the EVD disseminated to Sierra Leone and Liberia. Before 2014, both Sierra Leone and Liberia had not reported any cases of EVD. As of November 2014,  there were 13,015 cases of suspected EVD and 4808 deaths(Madariaga, 2015). The latest EVD outbreaks were reported in May 2018 in the DRC. The outbreak was quickly controlled, with a total of 54 people being infected, out of which 33 died.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

The Social Determinants of Health and How the  Factors Contribute to the Development of  EVD

Social determinants of health (SDH) refer to the conditions in which a person is born, brought up,  work, and reside,  entailing the healthcare system.  Understanding the social determinants of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is essential in order to design population health measures for regulating EIDs outbreaks.   According to Houeto (2019), EVD is an EID has rerecorded several outbreaks, with the majority of outbreaks occurring in central Africa, since the initial outbreak of the disease in 1976 in South Sudan and DRC.  Fewer cases were reported in the initial outbreaks, with the disease seeming to spontaneously end with limited cases compared to outbreaks that followed. Nevertheless, when EVD outbreaks occurred within healthcare settings that had lower standards of sanitation and hygiene, there was the tendency of the transmission being amplified and to lead to huge infections and mortality of healthcare personnel. The EVD epidemic in West Africa was contributed by general population factors along with nosocomial factors, with intensified transmissions among humans being contributed by inadequate control of the infection, cultural practice and belief, and funeral and burial practices (Houeto, 2019).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

In Africa, hospitals have acted as amplifiers of the transmission of EVD due to unavailability or shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate measures to control the infection entailing reuse of equipment and needles, and poor sterilization techniques.  Even though EVD is not regarded as food-borne, hunting and handling of bush meat are a significant risk factor for the outbreak and transmission of the disease in Africa, because hunters might get cutaneous injuries, with handlers getting into contact with the blood of the animal or other fluids.  In Africa, cultural practices burials are main events that can take several days and they require cleaning, bathing, kissing, and dressing of the corpse, which exponentially increases the risk of getting the disease (Madariaga, 2015).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

Traditional healers have formed a portion of the casual health system in many African countries, particularly in West Africa. Benefaction of traditional doctors often makes people forego hospital visits when they contract EVD, which intensifies the spread of the virus in communities.  People have a false perception that EVD can be cured by traditional healers while others hold the belief that the diseased can be cured by bathing with or drinking salt,  along with the belief that EVD is caused by dishonest hunters who are curse amplified the transmission of the disease in West Africa.  Additionally, people fear going to health care facilities because they distrust them and see them as places where they can contract the infection instead of places for treatment (Okeke, 2019).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

The Epidemiologic Triangle as it Relates to EVD

EVD is regarded to be zootoxic, with sporadic spillover to apes and humans.  Fruit bats the natural reservoirs hosts of the Ebola virus. Humans become e infected when they handle dead or sick wild animals or when they come into contact with infected bats, either directly or indirectly (Malvy et al., 2019). According to Kaur et al (2017), Ebola virus is spread from wild animals to humans via contact fruit bats which have been infected with the virus and via intermediate hosts like pigs, apes, or monkeys that get infected when they come into contact with the saliva or feces of the fruit bats.  Transmission of the virus from one individual to another occurs when a person comes into direct contact with an infected person’s blood, body secretions and other fluids such as vomit, urine, mucus, breast milk, semen, and feces of an.  A person can also contract EVD by coming into contact with equipment that has been contaminated with fluids or blood of an infected person, including syringes and needles (Kaur et al., 2017).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

The outbreaks of the EVD  in humans suggest that the inception of the outbreaks was connected with low temperature along with high absolute humidity. Previous outbreaks of human EVD have occurred during wet as well as dry seasons. Seasonal relocation of fruit bats might lead to intensified contact between the bats with both humans and forest animals.  (Kaur et al, 2017).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

The Role of the Community Health Nurse and why Demographic Data are Necessary to the Health of the Community

Community health nurses working in community health facilities play crucial roles in the fight against EVD. Early detection of cases and isolation of patients is vital for timely commencement of treatment and control of the further spread of EVD in the population. Active case finding which involves systematically searching for symptomatic cases of a communicable disease utilizing a specified case definition is useful in EVD.  According to Kunkel, et al. (2019), EVD surveillance during an outbreak majorly depends on timely detection and follow-up of all contacts of EVD cases.  Community health nurses play crucial roles in contact tracing by successfully identifying and following up all contacts within their community.  In active case findings, community health nurses visit health facilities or households in search of possible EVD cases.

Demographic data are necessary to the health of the community following the EVD outbreak for guiding and effectual public health response.  According to Elston et al (2016), the present outbreaks of Ebola have proved devastating to susceptible populations in West Africa, including Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone, who have experienced the highest mortality rates globally. Demographic data are necessary to direct the prioritization of response actives to Ebola outbreaks. Demographic data helps in determining e the impact of the disease on the health care system, identifying the health needs of priority populations, and informing strategy in the Ebola response and resource allocation.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

National agency or organization that addresses EVD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a national agency that addresses EVD. Since the outbreak of  West Africa in March 2014, the agency enormously responded to EVD outbreaks both inside and outside the United States.   According to Frieden and Damon (2015), CDC efforts entailed supporting systems for managing  EVD incidents in countries affected by the disease, rallying up of partners, and reinforcing laboratory procedures, epidemiology, investigation of contacts and control of infections in health care settings, communication of recommendations and guidelines along with border screening in  African countries, including Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, West Africa,  as well as border screening in the United States. CDC took these efforts as part of global and national response activities to EVD outbreaks in partnership with other organizations. CDC also supported international, national, and community public health as well as health personnel to prevent escalation of the disease. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

When the initial case of EVD was reported in the country in September 2014, CDC released a notification to health care professionals in the country to consider travelers as having EVD if they presented compatible symptoms and signs twenty-one days after arrival from a traveler from a country with cases of EVD.  Additionally, the agency issued guidance for control of the infection in health care facilities reinforced existing surveillance systems and laboratory networks, and broadcasted guidelines for international travelers on the agency’s website, at United States international airports, and via social media channels.  The first case of EVD the country United States brought in by a patient who had traveled from Liberia. Two nurses providing care to the patients became infected, probably due to inadequate preparation,   lack of training on how to handle patients with EVD, and improper use of personal protective equipment. As a result, CDC strengthened recommendations for control of the infection, particularly specifications of personal protective equipment, supervision, and training. CDC also offered help to the local and state health departments (Frieden  & Damon, 2015).Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

A Global Implication of EVD

EVD is among the most dreaded infections in the 21st century, with global implications.  Away from the direct mortality and morbidity attributable to EVD, the disease has indirect impacts on global population health since there is the diversion of resources from programmed indented to control other diseases of greater significance, including malaria, HIV infections, human African trypanosomiasis and tuberculosis to the diversion of resources from primary care programmes to programmes aimed at improving infant and maternal health (Malvy et al., 2019). As a public health incident of global concern, EVD has prompted countries, including the nonaffected ones to implement measures aimed at preventing, detecting, and managing the introduction of the Ebola virus in their lands.Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.

EVD has been endemic or restricted to countries in Africa, with some spread occurring between neighboring nations. However, the infection can be disseminated to other continents because of the ease of global travel (Malvy et al., 2019). For instance, in September2014, the United States became the first developed country to record a case of EVD in its territory outside West African during the 2014 EVD outbreaks. The patient, who later died, had traveled to the United States from Liberia.



Elston, J. W., Moosa, A.J., Moses, F., Walker, G., Dotta, N., Waldman, R.J., & Wright, J. (2016). Impact of the Ebola Outbreak on Health systems and population health in Sierra Leone. Journal of Public Health, 38(4), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdv158

Frieden, T. R., & Damon, I. K. (2015). Ebola in West Africa-CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(11), 1897- 1905. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2111.ET211

Houeto, D., (2019). The social determinants of emerging infectious diseases in Africa. MOJ Public Health, 8 (2), 57-63. doi: 10.15406/mojph.2019.08.00286

Kaur, G., Sachdeva, S., Jha, D., & Sulania, A. (2017). Ebola virus disease in the light of epidemiological triad. Tropical Journal of Medical Research, 20(1), 1-9.

Kunkel, A., Keita, M., Dialo, B., de Waroux, P. P., Subissi, L., Wague, B., Molala, R., Lonfandjo, P., Bokete, S. B., Perea, W., & Djingarey, M.H. (2019). Assessment of a health facility based active case finding system for Ebola virus disease in Mbandaka, Democratic Republic of the Congo, June-July 2018. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19, 981. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4600-4

Kourtis, A. P., Appelgren, K., Chevalier, M. S., & McElroy, A. (2015). Ebola Virus Disease. Focus on Children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 34(8), 893-897.

Madariaga, M. G. (2015). Ebola Virus Disease: A Perspective for the United States. The American Journal of Medicine, 128 (7), 682-691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.01.035

Malvy, D., McElroy, A., de Clerck, H., Gunther, S., & van Griensven, J. (2019). Ebola Virus disease.  Lancet, 393(10174), 936-948. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33132-5

Okeke, A. (2019). Socio-cultural Determinants of Spread of Ebola Outbreak in West Africa 2014-206: Lessons Learnt. Asian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 1-6.

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a Serious.